Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Spearmans Rank Correlation Essay I can therefore predict that if a student that spends less than 20 hours in front of the TV can have a KS2 Total of 16. In addition, a student that has a KS2 Total of 17 could spend 40 hours in front of the television. HYPOTHESIS 3 This hypothesis is comparing the IQ of boys and girls against their KS2 Total. This means that I am trying to carry out an investigation that is based on the better performer at school and this is either boys or girls. My hypothesis states that boys perform better that girls at school but I will confirm that with the use of scatter diagrams and Spearmans Rank Correlation. This graph is comparing the IQ of females against their KS2 Total. From the above graph, I can see that there is a positive correlation and this therefore disproves my hypothesis because I did not expect girls to do very well in their KS2 exams. Nevertheless, to be very confident with my hypothesis, I will have to carry out a Spearmans Rank Correlation Test to check whether these two factors actually work with each other. I have drawn a line of best fit and this gives me a rather accurate correlation of the comparisons that I am carrying out. This is Spearmans Rank Number. Since my data was too much, I print-screened the important part, which was the actual calculations itself. When I carried out Spearmans Rank Correlation, I got a strong positive correlation, which meant that girls with a high IQ would also have a high KS2 Total. This also tells me that I interpreted my scatter graph rightly because I saw that there was a strong positive correlation. This graph is comparing the IQ of males against their KS2 Total. From the above graph, I can see that there is a strong positive correlation and this therefore proves my hypothesis because I did expect boys to do very well in their KS2 exams. Significantly, to be very confident with my hypothesis, I will have to carry out a Spearmans Rank Correlation Test to check whether these two factors actually work with each other. I have drawn a line of best fit and this gives me a rather accurate correlation of the comparisons that I am carrying out. This is Spearmans Rank Number. Since my data was too much, I print-screened the important part, which was the actual calculations itself. When I carried out Spearmans Rank Correlation, I got a strong positive correlation, which meant that boys who have a high IQ would also have a high KS2 Total. This also tells me that I have interpreted my scatter graph rightly because I saw that there was a strong positive correlation. After carrying out the last hypothesis, I can finally conclude that both boys and girls perform very well at school. Notably, I noticed that girls had a correlation of 0. 9 while boys had 0. 8. This also tells me that although they both perform well at school; girls have that slight advantage over the boys. STANDARD DEVIATION I will be using this formula to find the Standard Deviation of my data. This is because since my data is not in a grouped format, I will not be able to use the formula for grouped data but can use the formula for ungrouped data. I have decided to find the Standard Deviation of IQ because I feel that that has an effect on KS2 Totals. This is the Standard Deviation of my data for the IQ of females. As you can see from the print-screened data, I have carried out the steps to calculate the deviation of IQ in Mayfield High School. When calculating, I found out the average IQ of females in the school was 100. 275 and that is approximately 100. After more calculations, I found out that the Standard Deviation of IQ for females in the school is 10. This therefore meant that girls in the school have a high IQ and that they would have few students who are outside the outlier range (upper warning limit and lower warning limit). This is the Standard Deviation of my data for the IQ of females. As you can see from the print-screened data, I have carried out the steps to calculate the deviation of IQ in Mayfield High School. When calculating, I found out the average IQ of males in the school was 13726. 803 and that is approximately 13727. After more calculations, I found out that the Standard Deviation of IQ for males in the school is 19. This therefore meant that boys in the school have a high IQ and that they would have more students that the girls who are outside the outlier range (upper warning limit and lower warning limit). PLAN A I will draw a scatter graph to display my results. The reason why I have chosen this is that I expect it to show me the correlation between IQ, Average number of TV watched and KS2 Total. When I had completed my scatter graph, I noticed that there was a strong-positive correlation. I drew a line of best fit and noticed that it passed through the Upper Quartile IQ. In addition, I noticed a few outliers. This occurred when a student had a high IQ but had a low KS2 Total. PLAN B I will calculate the correlation by using Spearmans Rank Correlation. The reason why I am doing this is that it will enable me to see what type of correlation there is between IQ, KS2 Total and Average TV watched in a week. CONCLUSION I will say that this investigation does follow my hypothesis apart from me having a few outliers. Moreover, I will say that the outliers that I got did not make much difference to the results that I got. In addition, I think that I could have tried other methods such as using samples such as a simple random sample, Stem and Leaf Diagrams or cluster sampling that involves selecting the sample units in groups The limitations that I feel occurred during the process when I was carrying out this coursework is that there was not much time available to me so I just used two different ways to test out my hypothesis rather that using maybe three ways. In addition, I can say that if I had more time, I could have used more data and have varied the samples so that my results could be more accurate. I could also collect my own data because I can ensure reliability and have a varied source of data from different schools. This would help me because I can see if my hypothesis affects all the schools or some schools. If there were to be any more work that I would add to this work, I would use a variety of methods to test out my hypothesis.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Is College an Activity or a Lifestyle? Nikaurys and I became fast friends in the kindergarten Sunday school class at our Mennonite church. We used to beg our parents to let us spend Sunday afternoons together so we could play all the games we dreamed up. Our Sunday friendship continued throughout junior high and high school. Today I am sitting in a dorm room in northern Indiana, looking at walls covered with pictures of Nikaurys and I playing house under the coconut palms in her yard, the two of us at church camp, and our fifteenth birthdays. I have not seen Nikaurys since I went home for Christmas break last year. As time goes by, I feel like I am becoming more distanced from her because now that we are both in college, our experiences are very different. Yet I know that when I see her again, we will be able to talk about the common aspects of our college experiences, regardless of culture. My college experience in the United States is very different than Nikaurys'. When I go to dinner, the food service attendant greets me by saying "good evening, Elisabeth," as she reads my name off the I.D. card that she is scanning the value of another meal from. I smile, and politely ignore the fact that no one calls me Elisabeth. The Marriott cafeteria is busy with the 5:30 p.m. rush, so I wait in line behind at least twenty other people. Dinner tonight is a choice of soup and sandwich, mashed potatoes and gravy, or a salad. I load my antiseptic-looking plastic tray with chili and a grilled cheese sandwich and casually scan the crowd at the tables while I fill my glass with root beer. When I spot my roommate and a few of my friends talking animatedly at a table by the window, I carry my tray over to join them. The table is already full, but people stack their trays together so I can fit in. As I bite into my sandwich, the topic of conversation turns to whether we have set a record for the number of people around a table at the Marriott or not. Someone claims that the record number is thirteen, but after several minutes of loud arguments, we decide that it would be impossible to fit that many people in. At her home in Santo Domingo, my friend Nikaurys' dinner is much quieter affair.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Aristotle was born in Greece approximately 384 B. C. , to parents Nicomachus and Phaestis. His father Nicomachus was physician to King Amyntas of Macedon, and his mother was of a wealthy family from the island of Euboea. When he was 17 he went to study at PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Academy in Athens, where he stayed for around 20 years. Aristotle did very well at the Academy, but when Plato died he was not chosen to be among the leaders. Soon after PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s death he left to tutor Prince Alexander, later to be known as Alexander the Great. Aristotle later returned to Athens to open his own school which is known as the Lyceum. Aristotle was more interested in science than other philosophers in his time, maybe because his father was a doctor. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s sometimes referred to the father of science. One of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s most important contributions was sorting and classifying the various knowledge of science into branches. He thus laid the foundation of science today. Aristotle is also thought to be the father of the scientific method. In ancient times, gods were thought to be the cause of events in nature. Early Greek philosophers questioned the roles of gods as the cause of these events. If the gods werenÃ¢â¬â¢t the cause of these events, who was? Philosophers advanced explanations based on philosophical principles and mathematical forms. Aristotle found that unsatisfactory. He was the first to realize the importance of empirical measurement (measurement based on observation and experience), believing that knowledge could only be gained from building on what was already known. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions were measurement and observation, which is what science, is built upon. He was the first to propose the idea of induction as a tool to gaining knowledge, and understood that theoretical thought and reasoning had to be supported by real world findings. His method is summarized as follows; Study what others have written about the subject, look for the general consensus about the subject, and perform a systematic study of everything even partially related to the topic. This is the very first sign of a scientific method. Aristotle loved categorizing and organizing things. For instance, with the soul he thought it was composed of two components: a rational and irrational part. The rational half was subdivided into Ã¢â¬Å"scientificÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"calculativeÃ¢â¬ sections, and the irrational half was made up of a Ã¢â¬Å"desiderativeÃ¢â¬ (desire) part and a Ã¢â¬Å"vegetativeÃ¢â¬ part. A person operates by combining all the workings of these parts. The vegetative part may be hungry. The desiderative part may want lots of candy instead of, say, vegetables, but the scientific part knows candy will be bad for teeth and weight. The calculative part will then try to work out a compromise. Problem solved! Aristotle assumed that there must be some basic commodities that combine to make all things. These basic four groups are, earth, water, air and fire, and each of these are a combination of two of four opposites, hot and cold, and wet and dry. For example, fire is hot and dry. He claimed that all materials were made from various combinations of these elements. His love of categories also led him to divide people into three groups. The big group, who loved pleasure, a smaller group -includes politicians- that love honor, and the smallest, but most elite group, who love contemplation. The latter were the philosophers. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s next task was to find the key reason that separated humans from animals. His answer was our ability to reason. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s really great contribution was that of biology. Having established the division between humans and animals he set out categorizing all he could of the biological world. He grouped animals with related characteristics into genera and then divided these genera into species. This same process is used today, though subsequent research has caused some of the individuals to be moved around. He wrote in detail about five hundred different animals in his works, including a hundred and twenty kinds of fish and sixty kinds of insect. He was the first to perform dissections on living things, so he could try to make sense of how they worked. He described how a chick develops within an egg and realized that dolphins and whales were different from fish. He noted that ruminant animals, like cows, had multi-chambered stomachs, something that separated them from simple-stomached animals. Not only did he study large animals, but small ones as well, such as bees. He also made lead way in botany. He attempted to classify over 500 plants into trees, shrubs, and herbs and, while he was not entirely successful in this, he certainly understood which features of plants were necessary for making distinctions. This time he has earned the title of father over botany. Aristotle made many other contributions to science, one of which was proving the Earth was a sphere, although he wrongly thought that Earth was the center of the universe. Plato disagreed with this theory; he sided with Copernicus who rightly thought the sun was the center of the universe. Aristotle also studied physics. He did not have many tools for experimentation so he could not measure time or speed. He did not allow for invisible forces, so he did not study gravity. Things fell to Earth and the moon circled the earth because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what they did. In spite of his limitations, Aristotle made some remarkable contributions to physics and laid the groundwork for Galileo, Newton, and Einstein. He reasoned that infinite velocities could not exist, that time and movement are continuous and inseparable, and that time was even flowing, infinite, and the same everywhere at once. These are all true, and are part of EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Relativity. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing considering the limitations he had to work with. Anti-Macedonian feeling broke out in Athens around 323 BC. The Athenians accused Aristotle of irreverence. He chose to flee, so that the Athenians might not Ã¢â¬Å"twice sin against philosophyÃ¢â¬ (by killing him as they had Socrates). He fled to Chalcis on the island of Euboea. Aristotle died in 322 BC. After he died a lot of his work and research was lost. It is thought that today we only have about 1/3 of what he had originally written. Aristotle was an amazing scientist, but even he was not without mistakes. For example, he wrongly assumed that force is required to keep an object moving at constant speed. This error held progress back for years. He also, as I stated before, thought the Earth was the center of the universe. But, really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that what science is about? Trial and error, make mistakes then learn from them, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how you make real progress in science. Aristotle is proof of this. Look at all the progress we have made today, from his mistakes. Bibliography Bibliography 1. http://www. ucmp. berkeley. edu/history/aristotle. html 2. http://www. enotes. com/topics/aristotle 3. http://www. philosophypages. com/ph/aris. htm 4. http://jcmooreonline. com/2010/12/28/aristotles-enduring-contribution-to-scien ce-education-and-physics/ 5. http://www. iep. utm. edu/aristotl/ 6. http://galileo. phys. virginia. edu/classes/109N/lectures/aristot2. html 7. http://www. valpo. edu/geomet/histphil/test/aristotl. html 8. http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/aristotle-biology/#LifWor 9. http://leavis. tripod. com/science. htm 10. http://www. experiment-resources. com/history-of-the-scientific-method. html 11. http://www. sciencekids. co. nz/sciencefacts/scientists/aristotle. html 12. http://www. historyforkids. org/learn/greeks/philosophy/aristotle. htm 13. http://www. mlahanas. de/Greeks/AristotleBiol. htm 14. http://www. thocp. net/biographies/aristoteles. html 15. Info from class 16. Physical Science Book.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
From Molecular Pathways to Bone Phenotype. Osteoporosis is the most widely recognized bone malady known, influencing an expected 200 million individuals overall. Around 30% of every single postmenopausal women are influenced and up to 40% will add to a delicacy break inside their lifetime. After some time, various danger components have been connected with osteoporosis and are helpful when utilized in screening devices and treatment calculations. Diabetes, albeit distinguished more than a large portion of a century back as being connected with bone slightness, has go to the cutting edge just inside of the most recent decade as a vital osteoporosis hazard elements. Bone Mineral Density. Among the site(s) at danger for osteoporotic breaks, the bone site that is generally reliably appeared in studies to be connected with decreased bone mineral thickness (BMD) in DM1 is the hip. While a few exemptions exist , most studies show mediocre hip BMD among those with DM1 contrasted with controls without diabetes. In a meta-examination consolidating consequences of five studies, Vestergaard showed a huge diminishment in Ãâ scores at the hip (Ãâ score: Ã¢Ëâ0.37Ã ±0.16, ÃâÆ' 0.05) among patients with DM1 contrasted with controls. Discoveries from a case control study by Eller-Vainicher and others were comparable, where a diminishment in femoral neck BMD Ãâ scores was seen among patients with DM1 (Ã¢Ëâ0.32 Ã ± 0.14) contrasted with controls (0.63 Ã ± 1.0, ÃâÆ' 0.0001) coordinated for age, BMI, and