Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Peer Evaluation free essay sample

Average the scores provided by your team members by adding them together and dividing by 4 and place it in the space below. Evaluator’s Total: 20 Final Grade for BARS: __ Evaluation Ratings Scale Please indicate your views on each individual member by scoring them on the scale provided. We understand that some of the descriptions of the member may coincide with one another; but, from the descriptions listed below, we will put best possible number that best fits the efforts of the member. Contributing To Team Success: Actively participating as a member of a team to move the team toward the completion of goals. 1 = No Effort Given No effort was put into helping the team at all, let others volunteer their time and efforts No effort or ideas given Puts down other members ideas 2 = A Little More Than Nothing Completed one assignment give Gave just enough effort to slide by Gave 1 idea, while shutting down others ideas 3 = Needs Help †¢ Tasks assigned though some completed were usually left for other members to ick up †¢ Ignores team and organizational goals expected of them such as: completing tasks, researching, giving the ideas, and so forth. We will write a custom essay sample on Peer Evaluation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page †¢ Does not give input in meetings; avoids sharing thoughts/input. Says just enough to get in and out as soon as possible. 4 = Meets Expectations Completes fair share of responsibilities by doing just the required amount of work instead of going above and beyond to help others and their tasks. Helps others perform tasks and reach goals only if it doesn’t inconvenience them. Subordinates own personal goals for the good of the team. 5 = High Performing Always comes ready with ideas and the initiative to get the job done for the group. Helps other achieve without expectation of recognition and does the work at hand without waiting on others to ask for help. Assists fellow team members and takes on added responsibility without being asked. Communication: Clearly conveying and receiving information and ideas through a variety of outlets to group members. 1 = No Effort Given Did not come prepared for discussions, never gave ideas, just sat there and gave no effort No participation in class was reached, whether in sending in question or answering them for the class assignments Did not inform members of their absence or being late to class 2 = A Little More Than Nothing Responded to at least 2 to 3 emails, text, or other forms of communication but was always late Gave at least 2 ideas during the entire course’s group meetings and gave at least two discussions points for projects Informed only one member of their absence or tardiness at least once. 3 = Needs Improvement Responded to at least half of all emails, text, or other forms of communication but was usually late Gave 3 ideas during the entire course’s group meetings and at gave at least 4 discussion points for projects. Informed all members of their absence or tardiness at least once 4 = Meets Expectations Responded to a majority of the emails, text, or other forms of communication in a descent time manner. Effort was put forth in communicating ideas for group meetings, gave at least 4 ideas during the entire course’s group meetings, and gave at least 4 discussions points for projects. Informed all members of their absence and tardiness 5 = High Performing Responded to every email, text, or other form of communication on time. Came prepared for every group discussion, gave others their chance to speak, gave at least 6 ideas during the entire course’s group meetings, and gave at least 6 discussion points as well. Informed all members of their absence and tardiness. Initiating Action: Taking prompt action to accomplish team assignments; taking action to achieve goals beyond what is required; being proactive. 1 = No Effort Given No action or effort in achieving a goal as a group was met. Always waited for others to step up and volunteer for work. If a project was given to them another member had to come behind and clean up their work or do the work 2 = A Little More Than Nothing Accomplished one task given to them Waits for others to tell he or she what to do All work given was appeared to be done right before class with minimal effort in citing, grammar, spelling, and so forth. 3 = Needs Improvement Does not take appropriate action to accomplish tasks. Completes 7 out of 10 assignments. Is not proactive; but reactive; avoids work. Fails to follow through on projects/processes. Always waits for others to review his or her work. 4 = Meets Expectations Takes appropriate action to accomplish tasks. Completes 9 out of 10 assignments Takes action when appropriate; does not wait for others to take action. This member is more of a pusher for the group instead of one that has to be pulled. Always completes projects in a timely manner to complete objectives and achieve goals for the team 5 = High Performing Action is taken to achieve goals ahead of schedule; anxious to complete high-quality, professional work in a timely manner. Anticipates setting new goals as experience and knowledge increases. Encourages others to do their part in performing and helping the group achieve their goal of getting an A. Managing Work: Effectively managing one’s time and resources to ensure that work is completed efficiently; makes timely notice of not being in class/meeting or tardiness. 1 = No Effort Given Work was never turned in Never completed his or her own work but left it for other to do Without other group members they would be lost. = A Little More than Nothing Work came in late every time, that is if it made it Would complete half of the work given to him or her but another member would have to come behind their work and clean it up or redo the work for it to be expectable. Highly dependable on others. Needs Improvement Work is not completed in a timely manner or completed Completed all the work given to them but other members had to help polish the work before it could be turned Depended on others after their share of work was completed in order to reach a polished project = Meets Expectations †¢ Work completed in a timely manner †¢ Completed all work given on time and without the need of others help †¢ Only depended on other members when other members were required to help complete the project. 5 = High Performing Work is always completed on time or ahead of schedule and needs no help from others, unless required Encourages others to do their part in performing and helping the group achieve their goal of getting an A.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Tuition Assistance and Funding of Post

Tuition Assistance and Funding of Post Education is important and every government should make efforts to ensure that its citizens access education. Although education is expensive, scholars and researchers still believe that education is key to success. Therefore, making education accessible to all is the first step towards development and social change.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Tuition Assistance and Funding of Post-secondary education in Ontairo specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Canada, people in the lower class face many issues and for some, attaining tertiary education is a big challenge. However, to ensure that needy students in Ontario access the college education, the Federal government of Ontario has been working together with the Central government of Canada to facilitate loans for such students. This paper will discuss extensively the OSAP tuition assistance program and funding of post-secondary education in Ontario, Canada. Conclusion The Canadian government has shown commitments to make certain that education is accessible to all citizens. To ensure that needy students realize their dreams, attain education, and achieve their career goals, the government of Ontario, through the Ontario Student Assistance Program (OSAP) has been instrumental in funding post-secondary education. Although funding of this program has been a challenge, the Federal government of Ontario has jointed efforts with the Central government of Canada to ensure that all needy students access tertiary education. Various departments have been proactive to ensure success of this project. The Federal government and Department of Human resource and Social development have been administering the OSAP program while the Ministry of Training in conjunction with tertiary institutions is responsible for fair administration of the program hence promoting transparency. Because of commitment by various stakeholders, the implementation of the OSAP program has been very successful. As a result, needy students in Ontario are now able to attain their education and career goals. Since students are required to pay this loan after they have successfully completed their college education, it has been a big challenge for most of them because the current repayment program requires graduates to pay a certain fixed amount of money every month. Since most young graduates do not get well paying jobs, there is a need to make amendments to the current repayment program. The best alternative is fixing the repayment schedule based on income level of an individual, which will enable graduate students to pay the education loan with ease. With such amendments, the OSAP program will continue to help needy students and families achieve their education and career goals.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act - Essay Example This refers to the involvement of the federal government’s computers or prescribed financial bodies in instances where the committed crime is of an interstate nature. To clarify the provisions of the original Act further, trafficking in passwords, rebuffing service attacks and malicious distribution of codes was also criminalized by the CFAA. The Act also underwent several amendments in a bid to eliminate overlaps and fill loopholes between 1989 and 2008. With examples, this paper will question the legitimate effect of the CFAA: Has it been a success or failure in preventing computer fraud and abuse? This question is driven by the vagueness of the law, which has the potential of exposing it to flaws and prosecutorial abuse. By its definition, the Act can be perceived from two angles in terms of the computers it covers (Granville, 2003). The covered computers are referred to as protected computers, and in this sense, theoretically, a protected computer is defined as one meant f or exclusive use by the government of the United States or by a financial institution. It also refers to any other computer which uses the government or financial institution is injuriously affected by conduct that constitutes an offense. This includes computers not within the United States, which affect foreign or interstate communication and commerce of the United States. ... Since Congress did not describe clearly what was meant by that, it raises questions as to whether prosecutors will be of the opinion that a violator of terms of service of a website deserves time in jail or not (Jarrett & Bailie, 2010). Would such an opinion be reasonable or excessively harsh? Further, does the law need to separate the way it treats criminal intentions on the Internet that result in grave harm to the security of social, civic, and financial institutions from what is considered everyday Internet activity? In the light of the current scramble for the Internet, lawmakers need to quantify the effectiveness of the CFAA and decide on how to respond to various stakeholders and interested parties. For instance, some foreign countries are seeking control over the Internet; powerful individuals and corporate organizations want it shaped in ways beneficial to them while undermining national interests; military regimes are spying, attacking and oppressing both private and public institutions; and intelligence and law enforcing agencies are seeking to monitor and mine it (Jarrett & Bailie, 2010). An analysis of these areas will enable lawmakers to determine the success or failure of the CFAA so far, and whether or not reforms are required. In the widespread example of the Aaron law, it is open to argument whether Aaron Swartz committed a federal crime by downloading content from JSTOR, a well-known archive for academic documents, on which he had an account. After JSTOR administrators became aware of the downloads in 2011, they blocked them and did not pursue criminal charges.  

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Career Development Programs and Services in Schools Essay

Career Development Programs and Services in Schools - Essay Example It helps us in deciding which occupation is most suitable for us according to our personality. Through career development, we can also judge our mental capabilities, our area of interest and so on. In the modern era, life is going very fast day by day, in this scenario, career guidelines and career development centers are very productive to helping the students. In the hustle bustle of life, adults become very confused and disorientated, cannot able to recognize their own interest. They need some proper channel for choosing their career. In this proposal, I have focused on the development of the adult students in the schools. If the adults have got proper training or guideline from the schools, resultantly they will become very much clear about their direction. Career development is very necessary for the well being of the character of the students. It enhances their abilities and refines their thoughts. â€Å"Career development is the planning of one’s career and the implementations of the career plans by means of education, training, jobs, search and acquisition, and work experiences. If we look at the process more from the perspective of the organization, the career development is the process of guiding the placement, movement, and growth of employees through assessment planned training activities, and planned job assignments† (Garavan, 1990). Career guidance comes under the field of counseling which places an emphasis on the significance of curiosity. The basis of a career decision happens to be the knowledge that you have of your own self and the way you project yourself into the future. A consideration is also taken of the skills, preferences and requirements. Through it, the anxieties and assumptions of the future have a great impact upon them. These have an important link with the past and they are the determination of the degree to which the options are flexible and adventurous. The decision procedure is made further complicated and  formidable due to the initial decisions being made when there is a lot of ambiguity.  

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Research report Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 4

Report - Research Paper Example These attempts of ennrching customer insights are highly different across different stores throughout the world (Marks & Spencer plc, 2015). Contextually, the current research demands for a study of customer insights into an organisation, where M&S has been proposed. The reason behind selecting M&S as the organisation for the study is the sector which it belongs to, i.e. retailing. The research of the retail sector would provide superior outcomes to the study, as a wide variety of customers arrive at retail outlets. The retail sector also has a higher number of consumers as compared to any other industry throughout the world. Moreover, it is notable that the consumers spend a significant proportion of time in retail outlets as compared to other outlets. Thus, it is important from the perspective of a researcher to select retail outlets for understanding consumer insights to a large extent (Marks and Spencer plc, 2015). The prime aim of the proposed research is to understand consumer insights in M&S. In this regard, for attaining the aim of the research, it is essential to draw some of the research objectives for the study. The research objectives are listed underneath. For the effective completion of the study, it is important to set some of the research questions. In this regard, it is highly important that the research questions are relevant to the objectives and aim of the study. These research questions are listed underneath. The proposed study involves a unique and decisive research plan, which would significantly support the overall development of the study and the effective completion of the same. In this regard, the correlation between the different variables would be executed (Baker, 2004). In this regard, the variables are selected based on the research questions of the study, which are listed above. Moreover, it is notable that the correlation process would be

Friday, November 15, 2019

Christian Anthropology

Christian Anthropology Introduction This essay will explore, from the perspective of Catholic anthropology, the Churchs views on resurrection. The paper begins by looking at Platos dualist theory of the soul and its impact on the development of thinking. The views of Aristotle and his influence on the writings of St Thomas Aquinas on the nature of the human soul. It will also explore the notion of the whole person and then relate this to different anthropological approaches. The essay will conclude with the teaching of the Catholic Church Magisterium. Plato Dualism In the tradition of philosophy there are two main views of human beings; Dualism where immaterial soul and material body meet and Materialism where we are one being. (Selman 2000, pg13). The Father of Dualism may be said to be Plato who lived in Athens from around 428-347 BC and who was, as far we are aware, the first to write on the subject of the soul at any length. Plato presents at least two theories. The best known, because of its enduring influence, was the one he developed in the Phaedo, which describes a dialogue his friend Socrates has with some friends shortly before his death on what happens at death. Selman (2000, pg 12) states that there are two main theories about the human body and its relationship with the soul. One of these is the dualist view, which suggests that there is a total division between the immaterial soul and the material body. The other is the idea that the body and soul of a human being are completely unified. In his theory, through the words of Socrates, Plato holds that the soul is separate from the body, is immortal, immaterial and pre exists the body and therefore does not depend on the body for its existence or survival. This concept -that the body and soul are two different entities, which happen to uncomfortably occupy the same space during life -is termed dualism. Platos theory goes further by elevating the role of the soul. The pre existent, immortal soul spends time in the body -a period of punishment -and death releases the soul from its exile in the body. Not surprisingly, Platos concept of dualism produced difficulties for early Christian philosophers and theologians, although his views were not unpopular and his view of the soul remained the dominant one in Christian thinking for the first thousand years (Selman 2000, pg15). Aristotle Aristotle was another philosopher who tried to explain the idea of the body and mind. Even though Aristotle was a pupil of Plato, his thoughts on dualism were very different from that of Plato. He still believed that the soul was the part of the body that gives it life and that the soul turned all physical form into a living organism of its particular type. However Aristotle believed that the body and soul were inseparable, the soul still develops peoples skills, character and temper, but it cannot survive death. Once the body dies then the soul dies with it. The soul is the form of the body, because it is what makes the body be a living body (Selman 2000, pg17). Aristotle developed the concept that the soul was the principle of life and life is manifest in activity. From these activities, he distinguished three types of soul: vegetative, sensitive and rational. Plants have the basic or vegetative soul allowing them to grow and reproduce. Animals have a sensitive soul enabling them to grow, reproduce, and experience sensation and movement. Humans have a rational soul, which enables them to grow, reproduce, and experience sensation and movement and to think, reason and understand. In all it is the type of soul, which defines the form of the body and thus body and soul are untied as one being. (Selman 2000, pg 19). For Aristotle then a body without a soul is dead matter. Dead matter no longer acts. It is only acted upon. While Aristotle could see that the body and soul were united he could not make the leap to speak about an immortal soul. This would be left to later philosophers such as Aquinas who would consider this point from a Christian perspective. Aquinas agreed with Aristotle in the sense that he thought that the soul animated the body and gave it life and he called the soul the anima. Aquinas believed that that the soul operated independently of the body and that things that are divisible into parts, are destined to decay. As the soul is not divisible, it is able to survive death. However, because of the link with a particular human body, each soul becomes individual so even when the body does die, the soul once departed still retains the individual identity of the body it once occupied. Descartes believed the soul retains its nature in the absence of the body but Aquinas argued that the disembodied soul is in an unnatural state. The human soul is naturally the form of the living body. Now that the soul is what makes our body live; so the soul is the primary source of all these activities that differentiate levels of life: growth, sensation, movement, understanding mind or soul, it is the form of our body (St Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theological). St Augustine, like most of the Church fathers, was influenced by the teaching of Plato who considered that the body and soul were two substances. (Selman 2000, pg 18), St Augustine held that the soul, like the body, is derived from the parents in the act of creation. According to Augustine, original sin is transmitted from Adam down through the ages in this way. This is the way in which he explains how original sin could exist in a soul created by God because God could only create that which was good. He later renounced his view that the soul is traduced. This heresy was condemned by the Council of Braga in 561 which stated that the soul is not traduced but is directly created by God (Neuner and Dupuis, pg 167). The title phrase introduces the idea of the whole person as opposed to parts of a person, which requires us to discuss how a person could be understood to be in parts. The most common way to talk about the relationship of the body to soul is Cartesian dualism, of the separateness of the two. Cartesian dualism comes from Descartes, who in fact first argued that the body and mind,soul were separate and distinct so that he would be able to continue making medical advances without the interference of the Church. In saying that the body and soul were separate he made the soul the domain of the Church, leaving secular scientists to look at the body, whereas before secular scientists had been looked at with suspicion or even imprisoned for trying to make discoveries However, dualism has a longer history than this even in the West, with Plato and other classical philosophers discussing ideas about the material world as a shadow world of a pure world of ideas. This could be seen as another wa y of describing the sinfulness of the material world body and the perfection of heaven, which will be the eventual home of the soul, freed from its imperfect trappings (The way of perfection by St Teresa of Avila CH 1 17). The Resurrection of the Flesh The quote in the title comes from the The Reality of Life after Death, written by the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in 1979 and published amongst the Vatican II writings in 1982. It refers to the teaching of the Catholic Church of the resurrection of the flesh, in which it is not just the soul, which survives after death, but the body as well. This can be related to other Catholic teachings, such as its tradition about Mary, who ascended bodily into heaven (LG 58), and teachings about the role of the flesh and denial of the flesh in salvation. Tertullian, talks extensively about the role of the body in salvation, making a claim for the potential purity of the flesh by pointing out that man was made of flesh before the fall: the clay, therefore, was obliterated and absorbed into flesh. When did this happen? At the time that man became a living soul by the inbreathing of God (Tertullian 2004, pg 49). He also shows the link between the actions of the flesh and the state of salvation of the soul: the flesh, indeed is washed, in order that the soul may be cleansed, the flesh is signed with the cross, that the soul too may be fortified the flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ, that the soul likewise may fatten on its God. (Tertullian 2004, pg 63) His intention is to show the relationship between body and soul, to assert that resurrection at the end of days will be bodily, and to extol the mortification of the flesh in the name of Christ, but in talking so extensively of the differences between the two. Selman (2000, pg 60) states that the human body can be raised up on the last day because it will be joined once again to its soul which has remained in existence since they were separated at death. Furthermore, if the soul is not immortal then there can be no Resurrection (Selman 2000, pg 60). For Aquinas, when God raises the dead on the last day, souls will be reunited with what is materially continuous with what came from the mothers womb Selman (2000, pg 59) states that the same person can be raised up because the body will be restored to the same form as it originally had in this life. The above views contrast very differently to, for example, the attitude of the Mormon church, as studied by Fanella Cannell (2005, pg 335- 51 ) . In her article The Christianity of Anthropology, she looks at the assumptions in anthropology, which are descended from its Christian background a particular sort of Christian background though. The Mormon Church show how the same teachings can be interpreted in different ways and that dualism is not necessarily, what Christianity has to result in. Not only do Mormons believe in full, literal resurrection, but also they believe that heaven is going to be exactly like earth, but perfected. In particular, they believe that people will continue to have children and families into eternity, and it is legitimate to ask questions like will there be chocolate in heaven? a question that most other denominations of Christianity would view to be frivolous or inappropriate Church Teaching Magisterium The Catechism (365) declares that the unity of soul and body is so profound that one has to consider the soul to be the form of the body. The Council of Vienne (1312) refuted all other doctrines, which were not consistent with this declaration (CCCC 365). The Lateran Council (1513) also condemned any philosophies, which denied that the soul is essentially the form of the human body (CCC 366). The The Second Vatican Council (GS 14) declared that man made of body and soul is a unity. Furthermore, the human body is not to be despised as it is part of Gods Creation (Gen 2:7) and will be raised up on the last day. St Paul said that the human body is the temple of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor 3:16). As a result it should never be undermined, or seen as something that separates humanity from God. Vatican II teaching of the soul as a very separate entity to the soul: we believe that the souls of all those who die in the grace of Christ, whether they must still make expiation in the fire of Purgatory, or whether from the moment they leave their bodies they are received by Jesus into Paradise like the good thief, go to form that People of God. (Austin Flannery 1982, 394). By using the phrase leave their bodies, Vatican II demonstrates that they see the soul and body as detachable. Even if the body is to be resurrected eventually, it is still the soul that gets to heaven first, after leaving the body behind (Teaching notes Perth). Conclusion In considering the question, I have looked at the nature of the soul from main philosophies of the soul as put forward by Plato and Aristotle. I have shown how Augustine, Tertullian, and Thomas Aquinas to present a Christian anthropology. I have contrasted this view with the Mormon Church and their belief of the resurrection. I have found that the Magisterium, in seeking to hold true to revelation and Biblical tradition, has preferred to use the teaching of St Thomas Aquinas, which holds that the soul is the form of the body. The soul is with the body now and will be again after the resurrection from the dead Bibliography Wansbrough, Henry. 1994.(gen ed) The New Jerusalem Bible. London: Darton, Longman Todd Flannery Austin, O. P. 1982. Vatican Council II Vol 2. New York: Costello Publishing Co. Neuner J. and Dupuis J. 2001. The Christian Faith. New York: St. Pauls/Alba House The Catechism of the Catholic Church. 1994 London: G. Chapman Aquinas, St Thomas. Summa Theologica Part Ia q.75 articles 2 and 6; and q.76 art1. Tertullian, 2004. On the Resurrection of the Flesh. Kessinger Publishers. Cannell, F. 2005. The Christianity of Anthropology Anthropology Today 43: 335-51 Selman, Francis. et al.2002. Christian Anthropology. Birmingham: Maryvale Inst Internet International Theological Commission. (2002) Communion and Stewardship: Human Persons Created in the Image of God. (online) Available from: Vatican web (April 2008) Saint Teresa of Avila. The way of perfection. (1995) (online) Available from: http://www.ourladyswarriors.org/saints/wayperf.htm. (April 2008)

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Disorders

The research states that in sexual trauma there is a prevalence of consequent axis II disorders, especially Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as well as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUDS) (Yen et al. , 2002). This heavy correlation between PTSD, borderline personality disorder and substance abuse disorder, create complications in treatment (Ross, Dermatis, Levounis, and Galanter, 2003). The goal of the present paper is three-fold.First, it aims at reviewing current research and theoretical frameworks which are designed to measure the degree of the relationship between PTSD and BPD. It is also sought to trace how it is possible by seeing to the correlation to avoid or neutralize further psycho social problems while reducing harm in substance abuse prevention. Second, the researcher plans to analyze the implications of how failure to address these dynamics in reducing harm and treating co-occurring disturbances may further delay treatment and cr eate relapse.Finally, there is an analysis of the methodologies employed in the treatment theories presented. A particular emphasis is made on the Integrative Treatment Approach suggested by Najavits (2002) and the Dialectical Behavioural Therapy developed by Lineham (1993). The researcher attempts to explain how these theories influenced the understanding of this dilemma. Before proceeding to the first point, it is necessary to clarify the main theoretical concepts, such as BPD and PTSD.Speaking popularly, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is â€Å"a normal response to an abnormal event† (Schiraldi, 2000, p. 3). Being categorized by the American Psychiatric Association as one of the anxiety disorders, it is typically caused by either or several of the three types of traumatic events: Intentional Human causes, Unintentional Human causes, or Acts of Nature. The presence of the stressor as part of the diagnosis differentiates PTSD from other disorders and makes it a uniquel y complex phenomenon.Besides an exposure to the stressful event, American Psychiatric Association in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1994, paraphrased in Schiraldi, 2000) lists another four PTSD criteria: persistent (more than one month) re-experiencing of the trauma (this category of symptoms is titled â€Å"intrusive memories† in Johnson, 2004), persistent (more than one month) avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli and suppression of general responsiveness (â€Å"avoidance behavior according to Johnson, 2004), persistent (more than one month) symptoms of hyperarousal (or, according to Johnson, 2004, â€Å"hypervigilance†), and disruption of psychological and functional equilibrium. In its turn, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) from the viewpoints of attachment theory and developmental psychopathology is defined as â€Å"a highly prevalent, chronic, and debilitating psychiatric problem† associated with the fo llowing symptoms: â€Å"a pattern of chaotic and self-defeating interpersonal relationships, emotional lability, poor impulse control, angry outbursts, frequent suicidality, and self-mutilation† (Levy, 2005, p. 259).Kernberg (2004), who considered the organization of the personality to be crucially determined by affective responses as displayed under conditions of peak affect states, listed â€Å"identity diffusion and the †¦ predominance of primitive defensive operations centering on splitting† among the key symptoms of this psychological dysfunction noting that they are accompanied by â€Å"the presence of good reality testing† (p. 99). The researcher meant that although the patient imagined himself living in the paranoid and distorted reality, he differentiated between the self and other objects. It is true that many current researchers acknowledge the correlation between PTSD and BPD, the latter being treated as one type of personality disorders (PDs). Bremner (1999) conceptualized BPD as fitting to the psychiatric disorders associated with traumatic stress.From this perspective, an exposure to traumatic events and consequent stress affected structural and functional aspects of the brain so that stress-related psychiatric dysfunctions were developed. The viewpoint was supported by McGlashan et al. (2000) who as relying on the results of a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, repeated-measures study of a clinical sample of four representative DSM-IV personality disorders called The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS) (N = 571) found a high rate of Axis II/II overlap. To specify, PTSD and BPD co-existed in almost a half of the sample. To be even more specific, Yen et al.(2002) conducted a longitudinal, prospective, naturalistic, multisite and cross-sectional study to analyze the correlation of the aforementioned two Axis II disorders within the population of 668 individuals between the ages of 18 and 45 years. Twenty-five percent of those participants (N = 167) exhibited BPD symptoms. Furthermore, BPD participants more often suffered from lifetime PTSD than patients with any other form of PDs (51% of those 191 individuals who reported of a history of traumatic exposure). Overall, Yen et al. (2002) hypothesized that BPD symptoms trigger vulnerability for traumatic exposure which is the key characteristic of PTSD. Bolton, Mueser, and Rosenberg (2006) observed that between 25% and 56% of individuals with BPD exhibit symptoms of current PTSD as compared to approximately 10% of other patients.Upon analysis of the two studies – the index one involving 275 mentally impaired inpatient and outpatient individuals with PTSD (30 patients with BPD among them) and the replication one involving 204 patients (20 people with BPD among them), the researchers stated that comorbid diagnoses of BPD and PTSD were associated with higher rates of severe anxiety and depression. Ross, Dermatis, Levou nis, and Galanter (2003) cited empirical evidence of comorbid PDs being highly associated with Substance Use Disorder (SUDS) in approximately 50% of the samples. They also shared a viewpoint that stress-related dysfunctions predicted worse treatment outcomes, for example, poorer psychosocial functioning, increase drug use, and lower retention rates.In a course of the eight-month research in a specialized inpatient dual diagnosis unit at a public hospital, the researchers observed the population of 100 patients, among which 53% displayed some kind of PDs. Seventy-four percent of the interviewees were targeted as having BPD, whereas twenty-five percent exhibited PTSD symptoms. Patients with comorbid disorders (dual and triple diagnoses) were more likely to abuse substance use (33% – alcohol; 32% – polysubstance; 25% – cocaine; 21% – cannabis; and 13% – heroin). Consequently, such individuals had more inpatient admissions and more severe symptom profi les than the ones with a single diagnosis. The difference between people with the single-, dual- and triple diagnoses was extremely evident in after-hospitalization treatment. Ross et al.(2003) argued that comorbidity of PDs as accompanied by SUDs should put the clinicians on alert as such individuals needed to be guided â€Å"at this critical junction† (p. 275) of a transition from the in- to out-patient environments so that they would be aware of the necessity to comply with after-care therapy. II†¦ The concluding section is dedicated to the analysis of the two innovative and effective therapeutic approaches to treating PDs as combined with SUDs: first, the Dialectical Behavioural Therapy developed by Lineham (1993) and, second, the Integrative Treatment Approach suggested by Najavits (2002). The former approach fits into the problem-solving therapeutic paradigm which is praised for the treatment allowing wide amplification and being clinically effective.Its core assum ption is that antisocial and inadequate behavioral patterns are explained by the scarcity of patients’ psychological resources to cope with their problems in an alternative acceptable manner. Lineham’s Dialectical Behavioural Therapy differentiates from other problem-solving alternatives in its particular attention to the effect of a specific diagnosis on the course of treatment and its extensive preventive measures against poor attendance. Linehan compared the outcomes of her dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) to the ones of standard outpatient-care methods to find that the ratio of patients who continued treatment with the assistance of a single therapist increased from 42 to 83 percent. The approach utilizes a range of cognitive-behavioural therapeutic techniques as based on a dialectic philosophy.On the one hand, the patient is helped to value his/her self as a precious and integrative phenomenon by eliminating the feelings of guilt, self-abomination and neglect . On the other hand, a therapist assists an individual with multiple disorders in finding stimuli for change. The core concept of the approach is the â€Å"skill† which is defined as â€Å"cognitive, emotional, and overt behavioral (or action) response repertoires together with their integration, which is necessary for effective performance† (Linehan, 1993, p. 329). The scholar described the four broad modules of skills: (1) mindfulness, (2) interpersonal effectiveness, (3) emotion regulation, and (4) distress tolerance.To proceed, the pioneer of this method listed three categories of skills training procedures: (1) skills acquisition, (2) skill strengthening, and (3) skill generalization. An introduction of new skills occurs at the first stage. At the further stages, a patient learns to manage the freshly acquired skills and project them onto the everyday environment. The Integrative Treatment Approach suggested by Najavits (2002) was designed specifically for treatin g PTSD and substance abuse. Therefore it is especially valuable for helping patients with multiple diagnoses. This therapeutic technique is a present-focused one so far as it helps patients to free themselves from the past traumatic experiences and enables them to practice in acquiring safety from trauma/PTSD and substance abuse.Being equally effective for single patients and groups of various backgrounds, Najavits’ methodology relies on the five principles. First, individuals with multiple disorders are stimulated to value safety as the main life goal in regard to relationships, thinking, behavior, and emotions. Second, they are guided into the integrated course of treatment, during which several dysfunctions are seen to at once. Third, individuals are helped in designing ideals to balance against the loss of ideals resulting in PTSD and substance abuse. Fourth, a range of exercises includes cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, case management practice. Finally, the method heavily relies on clinicians’ activities.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Foreign market entry strategies Essay

â€Å"Firms which participate in the business system as partners complement the company and its suppliers, thereby increasing the value to customers†. Explain your understanding of this view and provide examples to reinforce your arguments. For a company, entering new foreign markets may be achieved in a variety of ways. Each of these ways places its unique demands on the company in terms of organizational and financial resources. Most of the times, entering international markets is not a matter of choice but of necessity to remain competitive in new or established markets by meeting the consumer’ needs and values. The decision to go international represents an important commitment, to go into a new line of activity, this being the reason why it should be taken step by step: obtaining information, analyzing them, formulating alternative action plans, (Tookey, 1975) and of course find the right partners that match the company brand image and values. The international business system model is focused on the advantages determined by the internationalisation process and less on the development process of the internationalisation of companies. The main scope obtained by applying the Uppsala Model is predicting the company’s evolution on foreign markets. Two elements are at the basis of the model: the notion of essentiality attributed to the process and the notion of physical distance. The internationalisation of a multinational company takes place step by step, according to the Uppsala Model, which minimises the risks regarding the new market (Johanson; Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Therefore, the company is being involved gradually (investments, control and profit), getting to the point of creating a production subsidiary which ensures also the selling of the products on the new market. The stages of the internationalisation process are presented in Appendix 1. The concept of physical distance, the second element the Uppsala Model is based upon determines the companies to select, in a first stage, the neighbour countries in order to reduce the cultural, economical, political differences. According to this approach, the bigger the physical distance, the bigger is the incertitude about the new market and bigger the risks associated to this market. In the view of the globalisation phenomena, there are numerous criticisms about the â€Å"physical distance† notion. Many papers have developed the subject of the company’s internationalisation; a special place holds J. Birkinshaw who analysed the problems regarding the role of the subsidiaries and the evolution of the mandated in the internationalisation process at the multinational’s level. Therefore, Birkinshaw and Hoods (1998) have shown that creating a subsidiary can be explained on the basis of the interactions between the decisions of the mother-company, the initiatives o f the subsidiary and the specific conditions existing on the new market. The model developed by Birkinshaw (1997) is based on three variables: The relation headquarters – subsidiary; the subsidiary’s initiatives and the local environment. Regarding the internationalisation process, the company has more options (see Appendix 2) The first choice is represented by the development of the existing markets and it is being used by companies that are acting on highly competitive markets; the second choice – the company can choose to develop its activity on new markets, similar to the ones they are already acting on – in this case, they are usually choosing to export their products; the third strategy is developing a new line of products similar to the ones they already have and which will be sold on similar markets- in this case the company can choose between strategic alliances: creating a joint venture or licensing. . Management’s involvement in export operations is different, as we talk about passive exporters (when selling abroad is induced by the demand existing on the foreign market, meaning that the business is initiated by the importer) or active exporters (when the operation is initiated by the seller, which has an export strategy and a suitable business plan (Popa, 2006) From the operational point of view, exporters can be indirect exporters(with the participation of trading houses), when it isn’t necessary to create an organizational structure specific to the export activity or direct exporters, which is made by the producer, which is creating services or departments for international business. The determinants of export behaviour are experience and uncertainty effects; behavioural and firm-specific influences and strategic influences. 1. Experience and uncertainty effects Knowledge and learning regarding the exporting activity may be possessed or accumulated by the company in time. Experience has a key role, as firm’s involvement in international markets is most of the time a gradual process. During the early stages of exporting, firms have a more concentrated foreign market focus, while increased involvement in foreign market encourages diversification to a wider range of markets. As a firm’s knowledge of an export market increases, the uncertainty factor diminishes. This knowledge allows the identification of concrete opportunities, as distinct from theoretical that may be apparent from objective knowledge. 2. Behavioural and firm-specific influences Recent theories of exporting are strongly influenced by the behavioural theory of the firm, which stresses decision-maker characteristics, organizational dynamics and constraints, ignorance and uncertainty as key variables in decision making. Exporting has been described as a development process based on a learning sequence involving six stages Bilkey and Tesar, 1977): Stage 1: the firm is not interested in exporting Stage 2: the firm supplies unsolicited business, doesn’t examine the feasibility of active exporting Stage 3: the firm examines the feasibility of exporting in an active way Stage 4: experimental exports on neighbour countries Stage 5: the firm becomes an experienced exporter Stage 6: the firm explores the feasibility of exporting to additional countries of greater business distance. According to Welch (1982), the export commitment is influenced by four groups of factors (see figure 4): pre-export activities, direct export stimuli, latent influences on the firm and the role of the decision-maker. 3. Strategic influences The opinion among researchers and managers is divided on the issue of the relation between the firm size and export success. Still, the importance of a positive managerial attitude to exporting and the necessity of committing managerial and financial resources to the internationalization process are crucial to the success of the firm, irrespective of size. As a mode of international market entry, strategic alliances allow the firm (Bradley, 2002): †¢ Access to assets not readily available in the market †¢ Access to technology and markets †¢ The smaller firms can have access to technology and new products †¢ The larger firms can have access to markets †¢ Synergetic effects in the partner firms. Choosing the way to enter a foreign market represents an important part of the foreign direct investment strategy. The companies should select the new market, decide upon the types of operations that are about to be developed on these markets and decide the type of entry –green field investments, acquisitions, joint ventures. Choosing the way to enter a foreign market was also explained through cultural and national factors. Many studies have been concerned about this topic: †¢ Kogut and Singh (1988) after researches have concluded that a big cultural distance between the country of origin and the host country have as a result choosing joint ventures or green field investments. †¢ Gatignon and Anderson (1988) have shown that an important socio-cultural distance, measured with the help of the Index developed by Ronen and Shenkar (1985) – goes to the partial propriety right. †¢ Gatignon and Anderson (1988) have concluded that multinational companies avoid having 100% owned subsidiaries in high risk countries. †¢ Cho and Radmanabhan (1995) have shown that companies from Japan are not willing to make acquisitions in developing countries. Choosing the joint venture as a mechanism to enter new markets (especially the developing countries and the ones with centralised economy) is usual ly a second-best option for the companies from developed countries. Still, the companies show through this the major interest for the local market; the participation in the joint-venture could be qualified as a foreign direct investment. Many times, this mechanism represents the only way to be present on a certain market. Licensing in international markets: License is the purchase or sale by contract of product pr process technology, design and marketing expertise (Bradley, 2002). It involves the market contracting of knowledge and know-how. International licensing takes place when a company provides, for a certain fee-royalty, a technology needed by another company in order to operate a business in a foreign market. Licensing of this firm involves one or more of these elements: †¢ a brand name †¢ operations expertise †¢ manufacturing process technology †¢ access to patents †¢ trade secrets. Licensing may be attractive when host countries restrict imports or foreign direct investment, or when the market is small and when the prospects of technology feedback are high. Franchising to enter international markets: Franchising is a derivative of licensing. In franchising a business format is licensed, not a product or a technology. Trademarks, trade names, copyright, designs, patents, trade secrets and know-how may all be involved in different mixtures in the „package† to be licensed. Franchising is a form of marketing and distribution in which the franchisor grants an individual or company, the franchisee, the right to do business in a prescribed manner over a certain period of time, in a specified place (Ayling, 1986). A franchise is, according to International Franchise Association (IFA), the agreement or license between two legally independent parties which gives: †¢ a person or group of people (franchisee) the right to market a product or service using the trademark or trade name of another business (franchisor) †¢ the franchisee the right to market a product or service using the operating methods of the franchisor †¢ t he franchisee the obligation to pay the franchisor fees for These rights †¢ the franchisor has the obligation to provide rights and support to franchisees. Types of Franchises There are two main types of franchises: product distribution and business format. Product distribution franchises simply sell the franchisor’s products and are supplier-dealer relationships. In product distribution franchising, the franchisor licenses its trademark and logo to the franchisees but typically does not provide them with an entire system for running their business. The industries where you most often find this type of franchising are soft drink distributors, automobile dealers and gas stations. Some familiar product distribution franchises include: Pepsi, Exxon, Ford Motor Company. Although product distribution franchising represents the largest percentage of total retail sales, most franchises available today are business format opportunities. Business format franchises, on the other hand, not only use a franchisor’s product, service and trademark, but also the complete method to conduct the business itself, such as the marketing plan and operations manuals. Business format franchises are the most common type of franchise. The United States, today reported that the 10 most popular franchising opportunities are in these industries: fast food, retail, service, automotive, restaurants, maintenance, building and construction, retail—food, business services, lodging. The many advantages and disadvantages of owning a franchise should be carefully evaluated before deciding to purchase one. Throughout all these different foreign market entry strategies, by understanding every characteristic detailed we can conclude that partnership can be at the core of international marketing decisions and enable possibilities of internationalisation. Partnerships can be structured in various ways depending on their purpose. Wholly foreign-owned enterprises, non-equity/contractual/co-operative strategic alliances, equity strategic alliances/joint ventures, and franchises, are basic types of formal partnerships. There are numerous other types of informal partnerships including; joint marketing & promotion, joint selling or distribution, technology licensing, R & D contracts, design collaboration, production agreements, and other synergies. Consequently, the ideal partner in a business partnership is one that has resources, skills and assets and values which complement the company. The partnership has to work financially and contractually, but it is also essential that a partner’s areas of strength and weakness are known and that an assessment is made of what actions would be needed to achieve an appropriate level of operational fit between the cultures of the two organisations. To meet the market needs effectively and in a sustained way, the business partnership must be based on a systematic and transparent agreement between the client and the partners (common values). That agreement provides the basis for a partnership deal and has to be sufficiently strong to engage the sustained commitment of both parties but also sufficiently flexible to enable the partnership to be responsive to changes in market needs and conditions. Being at the forefront partners are an extension of the company capability, image and valu es perceived by the consumer, therefore, complement the company by increasing the value to customers. For instance, Sony is an international and reputed company for its high standards range of TVs. Today, within the UK market, Sony position itself as a seller of durable and high end products by practicing a selective distribution. Their products are mostly found at Sony Centres (Sony own shop) or PC Currys World, exclusive partner (distributor) chosen by Sony well known in the market and sharing similar values such as expertise in the audiovisual area or guarantee of quality products and services. It reflects well a relevant and consistent image of the values conveyed by both organisations to the customers.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Prices Not Listed on the Menu essays

Prices Not Listed on the Menu essays In Eric Schlossers first book, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal (2001), through hard facts, witty insight, and meticulous research, he produces a book-length view of how quickly and methodically the fast food business has taken over our country. Schlosser tracks the fast food industry from Americas first infatuation with fast food to its origins in 1950s California and its global triumph. Additionally Schlosser discusses the full transformation of our landscape, work force, economy, pop culture, and our diets. This infiltration of the booming fast food industry has invaded every aspect of our culture. Our diets are forever changed because of the fast food industry. Peoples lives have become busier and busier, leaving little time to sit for a meal. The fast food business has taken advantage of this fact, creating an easy solution for many Americans: cheap food, numerous locations, and quick service. When people started having to work longer hours and women started working also, so that the family could have enough money to live the lifestyle theyve become accustomed to, fast food restaurants became a necessity. These restaurants provide busy people with a quick and cheap replacement for a meal. But, fast food establishments have been serving up a lot more than burgers and fries; the lasting effects on diets have increased obesity and malnutrition among Americans. As Schlosser writes, The typical American now consumes approximately three hamburgers and four orders of french fries every week. (6) Schlosser clearly illustrates, through facts like these, the damage this industry h as had on the American way of eating. One particular fast food chain Schlosser continues to use as an example in this book is the American favorite, McDonalds. Schlosser begins his deconstruction of the fast food industry with the analysis and history of McDonalds as an American economi...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Relationship Between Deviance and Mental Illness

Relationship Between Deviance and Mental Illness Deviance and mental illness often go hand-in-hand. While not all deviants are considered mentally ill, almost all mentally ill persons are considered deviant (since mental illness isn not considered normal). When studying deviance, then, sociologists also often study mental illness. The three main theoretical frameworks of sociology regard mental illness a little differently, however they all look to the social systems in which mental illness is define, identified, and treated. Functionalists believe that by recognizing mental illness, society upholds values about conforming behavior. Symbolic interactionists see mentally ill persons not as sick, but as victims of societal reactions to their behavior. Finally, conflict theorists, combined with labeling theorists, believe that the people in a society with the fewest resources are the most likely to be labeled mentally ill. For instance, women, racial minorities, and the poor all suffer higher rates of mental illness than groups of higher social and economic status. Further, research has consistently shown that middle- and upper-class persons are more likely to receive some form of psychotherapy for their mental illness. Minorities and poorer individuals are more likely to only receive medication and physical rehabilitation, and not psychotherapy. Sociologists have two possible explanations for the link between social status and mental illness. First, some say it is the stresses of being in a low-income group, being a racial minority, or being a woman in a sexist society that contributes to higher rates of mental illness because this harsher social environment is a threat to mental health. On the other hand, others argue that the same behavior that is labeled mentally ill for some groups may be tolerated in other groups and so therefore not labeled as such. For instance, if a homeless woman were to exhibit crazy, â€Å"deranged† behavior, she would be considered mentally ill whereas if a rich woman exhibited the same behavior, she might be seen as merely eccentric or charming. Women also have higher rates of mental illness than men. Sociologists believe that this stems from the roles that women are forced to play in society. Poverty, unhappy marriages, physical and sexual abuse, the stresses of rearing children, and spending a lot of time doing housework all contribute to higher rates of mental illness for women. Giddens, A. (1991). Introduction to Sociology. New York, NY: W.W. Norton Company. Andersen, M.L. and Taylor, H.F. (2009). Sociology: The Essentials. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

The Authenticity of Ones Identity Created by the Passport Term Paper

The Authenticity of Ones Identity Created by the Passport - Term Paper Example As Hall maintains, "perhaps instead of thinking of identity as an already accomplished fact, which the new cultural practices they represent, we should think, instead, of identity as a 'production', which is never complete, always in process, and always constituted within, not outside, representation." (Hall, p. 222). In a close analysis if Hall's view, it becomes clear that the very authority and authenticity to which the term 'cultural identity' lays claim are challenged here and it opens up a dialogue or an investigation on the topic of cultural identity and representation. A reflective analysis of Diaspora in relation to identity, particularly investigating whether an individual's passport defines who he is, makes it obvious that, with so many culturally diverse people and people born and living outside their native countries, a document stating one's name, date of birth, sex and place of birth simply cannot define the person. Â  In order to comprehend the relationship between Diaspora and identity, it is fundamental to have a critical, reflective, and unambiguous application of the term 'diaspora' as against the uncritical, unreflective application of the term to any and all contexts of global displacement and movement. When thinking through the category of diaspora and its connection to geopolitical entities such as nation-state, it becomes fundamental to consider the important role of nation formation and construction in the modern world. "Mass migration movements, the multiple waves of political refugees seeking asylum in other countries, the reconfiguration of nation-states demand that the concept of nationhood take account of the specific geopolitical circumstances that precipitate the movement of people and communities in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries." (Braziel and Mannur, 2003, p. 3). While cultural and literary critics have been increasingly concerned with how to rethink co ncepts of nationhood and national identity, it is essential that such critical analyses incorporate contemporary forms of movement, displacement, and dislocation - from travel to exile. Indeed, these questions are inextricably linked to a theorization of Diaspora. In a critical analysis of contemporary forms of movement, displacement, and dislocation from travel to exile, in relation to Diaspora and identity, the role of passport in order to define one's identity comes into question. Thus, it is fundamental to analyze whether our passports can define who we are because such critical investigations can reveal different aspects of Diaspora in relation to identity. In the context of the modern world with numerous culturally diverse people and people born and living outside their native countries, the passport which is a document stating one's name, date of birth, sex and place of birth, simply cannot define a person or his cultural identity. Â  In the modern world of globalization, one's identity is mainly determined by one's passport, which is a document stating one's name, date of birth, sex and place of birth, and the authenticity of such a document in defining one's identity in relation to Diaspora is generally questioned.

Friday, November 1, 2019

American politics(energy) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

American politics(energy) - Essay Example Without developing renewable energy sources such as hydrogen, we face a probable future of global war over the last remaining oil. We also will aggravate global warming and the environmental pollution, possibly to irreversible levels. There is also potential for the global economy to collapse, sending our civilization into virtual decline. Most of these events are already beginning to occur, and will worsen if no new path of action is taken. In order to avoid this crisis our world is heading towards, the National Issues Forums (NIF) booklet â€Å"The Energy Problem: Choices for an Uncertain Future† suggests three possible solutions to our present energy situation. The first approach is to utilize our national untapped reserves of oil, natural gas and coal. This approach seems to merely prolong our problem of needing to find long-term alternative energy, at best buying a few more years until the world’s supply of oil is too low to avoid major global crises. This approach also continues to pollute the environment, and will destroy the some of our country’s last fragile pristine environments, such as the Alaskan wilderness. The second approach is to use more wind, solar and nuclear power. Wind and solar power may not be able to meet our high demand for energy. Nuclear power is dangerous and dirty, requiring the disposal of radioactive waste that destroys environments. Wind and solar power have the advantage that people can install this form of energy production locally in order to become more energy independent. The great part of this approach is that we can finally work to reverse climate change. When hydrogen power is also included, these renewable energy sources make the greatest choice (minus nuclear power, unless a way is found to safely clean it up). The third approach is to use less energy and use energy more efficiently. This solution is