Saturday, August 31, 2019

Accounting Principles and Health Care Essay

There are no formal accounting principles that apply to health care. However, there are five generally accepted guiding principles used in the management of the financial aspects of health care management (Cleverly, Song & Cleverly, 2011). Understanding the five guiding principles are important in understanding financial information and managerial accounting and how the principles relate to health care (Cleverly et. al. ). The five principles include, accounting entity, money measurement, duality, cost valuation, and stable monetary unit. Each principle and how it relates to health care is discussed in the following (Cleverly et. al. ). Accounting Entity An accounting entity is the business or corporation that performs clear economic activities, separate from any personal economic endeavors (Accounting Tools, 2010). An accounting entity requires financial records that define financial activities (Cleverly et. al. ). In health care, accounting entities can be hospitals, clinics, or other entities that are part of a larger corporation. See more: Social process essay Accounting is geared to measure and report the financial activities of the entities under consideration. Money Measurement Money Measurement is very simply, a way to keep count and records of the incoming and outgoing revenue of the accounting entity. This is not an easy task and involves consideration of various issues (Cleverly et. al. ). Resources and liabilities have to be considered and calculated to determine accurate money measurement. Resources are also referred to as assets. Scarce resources are things, supplies, money, and other things or resources that are needed by the company in order to generate money. These resources are limited and necessary to the entities operation (Cleverly et. al. ). This may include nursing staff for heath care organizations. Other scarce resources for health care organizations may include buildings, many different kinds of medical supplies, medications, and other supplies to care for patients and maintain the organization. Assets are the resources that the organization has and the money generated. Liabilities are resources that are owed for services, supplies and other things that the organization has acquired. The ideal goal of any business is for the assets to be greater than the liabilities (Cleverly et. al. ). Duality Duality is a simple mathematical equation or rather, it seems simple. The equation states, â€Å"The value of assets must always equal the combined value of liabilities and residual interest, which we have called net assets. † (Cleverly et. al. pg. 185 para. 1) This requires balancing reports about changes in either side of the equation. In health care, for instance, changes such as buying supplies, receiving payment for services, or paying the electric bill are all transactions that require balancing the books, so to speak, so that the equation is still equal. Cost Valuation Cost Valuation can be defined as choosing the right price for services, supplies and other things of value (Hutton, 2005). Choosing the right price may be based on the history of what the entity has paid that is reflected by money measurement or may be based on other measures of what a cost should be (Cleverly et. al. . Market value is a way to assess a cost value. This seems to be favorite way with many organizations. This method is not considered objective, however and can provide different opinions on what an item is worth, making costing difficult (Cleverly et. al. ). Replacement value is another way of choosing the right price. This gives the cost of how much money it would take to replace an item or service (Cleverly et. al. ). In health care for instance, when costing an expensive piece of medical equipment, replacement value makes more sense than market value. The organization may receive different quotes on market value but replacement value should be more consistent and reliable. Stable Monetary Unit The stable money unit is our country is the dollar. The dollar is used in money measurement and other principles that have money values attached. The dollar is always the dollar but the value can change based on the economy and inflation (Cleverly et. al. ). An example of how this might impact health care is, suppose the organization, based on replacement value, has allotted a certain amount of money to purchase an expensive medical devise. Before the purchase has been made, the dollar decreases in value or is unavailable and has to be imported. The value of the dollar has changed; the country from which the item is imported from may have experienced a decrease in the value of the United States Dollar. The dollar is still a stable monetary unit though there may be fluctuations due to inflation or other events. Conclusion There are no specific hard rules that govern accounting; the five guiding principles of accounting are used to help organizations keep track of the entity’s assets and liabilities.  The principles are not perfect but serve as a guide to costing and money measurement. The stable money unit in our country is the dollar. The dollar may experience fluctuations in value but is still considered stable and how the United States measure and pay for any expenses. The five principles seem simple and as one looks into each principle further, it is noted that there are complexities and problems that must remain in the forefront of the accountant’s mind when keeping up with the financial end of any organization.

Hospitality Information Technology Strategy

1. Hotel utilise e- commerce very effectively for procurement purpose. They purchase essential products necessary for the daily running of the hotel via online websites. I would like consider Costa coffee Heathrow in my case study as I am working there presently and it is very much suitable for this case study. The website which Costa uses to purchase its essential products for daily running of the business are: * www. geometric-furniture. co. uk * www. kn-portal. com * www. caterwide. com * www. incorporatewear. com * www. coffeecreation. co. uk * www. bunzlcatering. o. uk Geometric furniture – Geometric Furniture is a design led manufacturer of high quality contract furniture. Established over 40 years ago, Geometric has become one of the UK’s leading contract furniture suppliers. It supplies to number of company like Odeon cinema, Costa Coffee, Oxo Tower, The Warehouse, Ronald Mc Donald house. The best thing about this company is that they deliver they service by the mselves, inform their client beforehand about its features. Delivered the product on time without fail and do understand the important of deadline and reliability.Kuehne + Nagel – has got a new contract to manage the distribution of food supply on behalf of Whitbread plc, which is the UK’s largest hotel and restaurant group. Costa has taken the decision to fully outsource its food logistics activities to Kuehne + Nagel because they agreed to undertake delivery of chilled and ambient products to over 700 Costa Coffee outlets seven days per week, and delivery of frozen, chilled and ambient products. The contract is for 5 years and in addition with that Kuehne + Nagel will operate a customer call centre on behalf of Whitbread and manage the ordering of products from designated suppliers.Caterwide – As one of the UK's largest and fastest growing coffee shop brands, Costa Coffee has been using Torex Inn Touch POS and Caterwide for the past ten years to drive strategi c initiatives around cash management, suggested ordering, stock control, labour management and reporting and business processes. One of the key advantages of the Torex solution is that it integrates with Costa Coffee's loyalty programme, the Costa Coffee Club, whereby customers can collect points when they buy food and drink which can be redeemed against future purchases.Incorporatewear – Incorporatewear, the UK’s premier corporate clothing provider, has been percolating a piece of new business over the past 12 months and is now delighted to pour out the details of its recently signed contract to supply Costa Coffee. Incorporatewear only work with the highest quality materials and the Costa range is no different with shirts and aprons being manufactured from premium poly/cotton fabrics and provides the uniforms for 16,000 Baristas and staff. There are two companies of Whitbread plc which are under the umbrella of incorporatewear that Costa coffee and premier inn.The be nefits of it are, advanced call centre telephone system, dedicated client contact number, instant query resolution, experienced team. Bunzl catering supply – is the upcoming leading distributor of non- food consumable to hospitality and catering sector in the UK, it got 10 branches all over the UK provide a responsive and a flexible local service. at each branch they got dedicated customer service team which has good understanding of local business need and provide outstanding customer care from points of order through delivery.We can place order through telephone, fax, email and online as well which include an image catalogue, fast orders, regular buys, and saved basket. when the order has been placed the following information is readily available to them: full customer details including delivery address previous purchase history authorised product list real time stock availability pack sizes and product descriptions Coffee creation (prima coffee service ltd) – has be en supplying high quality coffee product from more than 12 years with a passion for quality and attention to details.It’s very easy to place an order with coffee creation; it takes you through each step, finding the item you would like to buy, add the item to your shopping basket, proceeding to checkout, sigh in, enter your details, check and submit your order, provide payment information, get email as the confirmation, tracking down the order. Sometimes they send product for sampling if requested and the customer of coffee creation are cafe Nero, Costa coffee, coffee republic. 2. Critically evaluate your organisation’s website. Discuss its strong and weak points. How user friendly is it?Is it functionality adequate? Put yourself In place of someone who is unfamiliar with the organization. Does it enhance the reputation and encourage further contact? Webpage are the most inexpensive and the most effective way to promote any business especially in coffee shops people ar e looking for new shops in their neighbourhood and while travelling often start their search on internet. More than half of the marketing job is done if completely describing your cafe on webpage. The website of Costa coffee is quite eye appealing and attractive to customers.It matches the same colours and fonts on their web site as they do in their cafe. By using just the 2,3 colours, consistent fonts and easy navigation it stimulates the cafe itself. Some basic thing which a webpage must have it are, location, opening hours, photo gallery, about the business, menu, and press release. Out of all this Costa coffee explains its business, update press release, latest picture of the product, location of all the stores with opening and closing hours, address 5. What is social media? Identify three different types of social media how they can be of benefit for hotel industry.Social Media is the use of internet-based programs to make interaction with friends, family, classmates, customers and clients. It can be done for social purposes, business purposes or both. The appropriate way to define social media is to split it into two parts, social and media. Media is a tool of communication, like a newspaper or a radio, so social media would be a social tool of communication. This social tool of communication doesn’t just give the information but interact with you while giving that information.Interaction may be like asking you for to comment in any particular thing, or letting you vote on any article or asking you to rate any movie etc. Social media is a new form of interacting people that allows anyone to become a source of information through new technologies that doesn’t need any previous experience. It also allows the audience to be the author and author to be the audience. Anyone can experience the interaction for free as long as they have internet connection. The popular site of social media includes Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Flickr and many others .These sites all allow users to post information that can then be commented on, followed or enjoyed by larger social groups and peers. Many Hotels are investing on its use to target market demographic groups or to break through to new potential customers. Now Days mostly all the hotel have Facebook pages and are adding facebookers as friends in an effort to attract new customers and build brand loyalty. There are restaurants that are tweeting out daily specials and/or coupons to give as a gift to their followers.Facebook- one of the most popular of social networking sites which allows users to sign up and add friends and social groups, post information, comment on that information, post photos and become fans of various items or company or group. Hotels create their facebook page to add their customer, to target new market, they post photos of the some special event occurred in hotel and tag their friends (customer), by tagging photo a friend of friends, who is known to the hotel ca n get to know about the hotel and his or her friend whereabouts.Through this hotel make new customer with the help of Facebook. Example – some Marriott hotels use their Facebook pages to communicate with guests about local and hotel events. (USA Today) Twitter: This is a free social networking and micro blogging service that enables its users to send and read messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the author's profile page and delivered to the author's subscribers who are known as followers. Senders can restrict delivery to those in their circle of friends or, by default, allow open access. Elmore 2010) Twitter also allows hotel employees to start conversations with guests; even a tweet as simple as â€Å"Hope you're enjoying your stay! † which give a personalized touch that some guests really appreciate that. Hyatt and Hilton hotels are using Twitter as a virtual concierge service to which guests can â€Å"tweetâ₠¬  queries and expect responses within the hour. (USA Today) Youtube : A very popular and free video-sharing  Web site  that allows registered users to upload and share their video clips online at the YouTube. om Web site. To view the videos you are not required to register but to upload the video you need to register with your email accounts. It allows billions of people to browse, watch and share originally-created videos. It creates a group of people to connect, inform, and inspire others across the globe and acts as a distribution platform. The Marriot Resort & Stellaris Casino in Puerto Rico uses YouTube to let guests record a 30-second video postcard to send to friends and family through the resort’s YouTube channel.A hotel can use the youtube to promote their own website by sharing and uploading videos of own hotel. 6. What is cloud Computing and explain how it can be used for the hospitality industry? The service provided on internet with the use of computing res ources (hardware and software) are called as cloud computing. All data that is being accessed are usually saved in servers, which are in accessible by any unauthorized user. This allows enterprise to maintain faster service and less maintenance from IT.Technology has advanced rapidly in the last couple of years that now it is possible for almost any device to quickly connect with a cloud service and access the information required. The â€Å"cloud computing† concept minimizes the upfront cost of infrastructure and allows the enterprise focus on project, which will differentiate the business itself rather than the infrastructure which will be avoided. Many author have made the attempt to describe it, Buyya et al. efined it as a â€Å"cloud is a parallel and distributed computing system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualised computer that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on a service level agreeme nts established through negotiation between the service provider and consumer. † The key characteristic of cloud computing are: (1) illusion of non ending computing resources, (2) with the use cloud computers up- front commitment is eliminated, (3) ability to pay for use as needed, (4) self service interface and (5) resources that are virtualised.The concept of Cloud computing had benefited the hospitality industry in many ways, such as: A hotel can eliminate the large upfront costs from acquiring computational assets and the typical time delay in building out and developing computer software app. By eliminating upfront cost hotel can save its precious capital to take future business decisions. It allows user to access system through web browser from anywhere at any time, user can access through any device, like pc, laptops, mobile etc. with the use of internet.It improve the business performance and the service delivery, the maintenance cost of cloud computing is very low. So me other benefits which a hotel can get from cloud computing includes low upfront costs, minimal IT infrastructures and easy access across multiple properties. Cloud has a pay-as-you-go service requires minimal investment and offers better technology at a lower cost. 1. Social media 2. 0 Successful social media programs that have value meld top technology and sales best practices By Gina LaVecchia Ragone 2. Social Media & the Hospitality Industry by Forest Time, Demand Media . M. Miller, Cloud Computing: Web-based applications that change the way you work and collaborate online, Que, 2008. 4. R. Buyya, C. S. Yeo, and S Venugopal, Market-oriented cloud computing: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering IT services as computing utilities, in Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC 2008, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, CA, USA), Dalian, China, September 2527, 2008. 5. Khan, K. M. , & Malluhi, Q. (2010). Establishing tru st in cloud computing. IT Professional Magazine, 12(5), 20-27.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Biography & Song

All people around the world has blessed with different talents and gifts. I would say that I am one of them and that most individuals like music. Everywhere you go, you can see people around who are fond in listening to music may it be â€Å"noisy† for others or not but for them it is a music that soothes their beings. I am a recording engineer who dearly loves music. Music is my passion and this is how I can express my feelings whether am happy or sad. Music is an expression of one’s emotion.Every line of the song tells a story and its rhythm and melody has meanings that foretold the joy and sadness of the composer. My interest in music motivates me to study in this field at an early age of 13. It is a lifestyle that I live on and music uplifts my soul. I also love touching other’s lives through the music I make. I strongly believe that music has big role to play in communicating with different kinds of people from different walks of life. Moreover, I also write songs. I love writing songs because they make me happy.Songs that relate to what I feel at the moment. It is my tool to tell other people that life is beautiful in spite of the pains and trials each one has gone through. Furthermore, I grew up in Montenegro Bay, Jamaica and Bronx New York and these made me exposed to different kinds of music from different kinds of people and help me appreciate it more. I recently reside at Orlando, Florida to attend full sail so I can understand music more. With these experiences and passion, I can say that I deserve to win in this contest.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

A Survey of Advances in Biometric Security Research Paper

A Survey of Advances in Biometric Security - Research Paper Example The research paper primarily emphasizes upon the analysis of the advancement that has been seen in the field of biometrics over the years, which has widened its implementation and popularity in the recent time. It has been learnt that biometric solutions have become quite popular amid various sectors of the society with regard to its importance as a security control measures. The technology works for analyzing and evaluating the identification of any individual through examining their physical and biological elements. It is believed that the technology assure utmost accuracy while executing the process of data accumulation and data analysis further ensuring the proper identification of any individuals. This aspect further aids in assuring protection of any secured areas or confidential networks. There are several forms of biometric security solutions, such DNA identification, fingerprint analysis, face recognition and etc. However, it is believed that there are certain errors that ca n take place in the process of executing security measures through the use of biometric solutions. This particular aspect, impact the social acceptance of the system. It is known that use of biometric solutions has its origination since the early civilization where many of the approaches currently used by biometric solutions were used for various purposes. It can be concluded that biometric security solutions has developed rapidly over the years and recently has gained widespread acceptance as one of the most reliable security measures.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Labor law and overtime Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Labor law and overtime - Essay Example There is an exemption to-overtime-pay for employees working in police department, fire fighters, and employees working in the hospitals like nurses (Solis, 2012). Exemption from overtime applies to registered nurses and those who earn $455 per week. Nurses who receive an hourly pay will qualify for overtime. Additionally, labour laws give room for an agreement between the employer and the employees. A nurse can receive extra pay for working on weekends, on call, or working at night according to the agreement with the employer. There is a law that protects nurses from working overtime. According to New York Department of labour, restrictions on consecutive hours of work for nurses, law effected on 1 July 2009 prohibits healthcare employers from mandating overtime for nurses. This law covers registered professional nurses or licensed practical nurses that provide direct patient care through contracts with third party staffing providers. The law applies on part time bases, full time, and to nurses working under contracts, (â€Å"New York Department of labour,† 2012). It is not allowed for a nurse to engage in voluntary work ask for pay. At the time of employment, every nurse signs a contract that stipulates the terms of employment. A contract guides and binds the nurse, the employer to the terms recorded, and nothing outside the contract is

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Insomnia as a Health Disorder Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Insomnia as a Health Disorder - Essay Example Insomnia as a condition deprives an individual all the benefits associated with having enough sleep. A characteristic aspect of an insomniac is being unproductive. A normal individual expects to allocate 7 to 8 hours of the day for a sleeping session. This will ensure that the individual is refreshed and motivated for the next day’s activities. The crucial function of the brain, learning and memory, is enhanced through memory consolidation, which takes place when an individual is asleep. It is expected that individuals who experience a normal sleeping pattern would perform their tasks better that insomniacs. The immunity in insomniacs is likely to be compromised as lack of sleep interferes with immune functions. Insomnia is also related to conditions such as irregular heartbeat, hypertension and increased levels of the stress hormone.A number of strategies exist, which if followed will help an individual from falling as a victim of insomnia. The strategies are referred to as s leep hygiene and a careful adherence will ensure a good sleeping session each night. The first step towards sleep hygiene is shunning from taking drinks that contain alcohol, nicotine or caffeine before sleeping, as these stimulates the body and kills sleep. Secondly, as much as exercising is important it is advisable not to exercise when going to sleep as it will bring stimulation and interfere with sleep. Thirdly, a good sleep habit will entail sleeping and waking at a defined time at night and day respectively.

Monday, August 26, 2019

ENGLISH AND GRAMMER MISTAKES ( A REPORT OF WHERE THE MISTAKES ARE ) Essay

ENGLISH AND GRAMMER MISTAKES ( A REPORT OF WHERE THE MISTAKES ARE ) - Essay Example the support of strategic partners and Life Telecom’s self-resources, the company will not only study the requirements of the mall but also come up with an integrated solution that will provide excellent internet and other communication services more favorably in favor of efficiency, cost and control. The changes in the methodology of telecommunication era have necessitated adopting a completely viable alternative to traditional, disparate telephone, data, video and TV networks (I don’t understand what you’re trying to say here). Life Telecom’s competitive advantage over other providers is based on execution of commitments, true delivery of advanced services and breakthrough technological solutions. It is also the first company in Bahrain to combine the extensive use of IPs for the integrated deployment and management of voice, data and video & VAS over wireless networks. In this way, Life Telecom has achieved many key objectives: To offer customers on wireless practically unlimited bandwidth (i.e. on demand request) and to maximize the efficiency of the investment in its infrastructure, hence, reflecting cost effective on customer side. With this built up Network, Life Telecom is developing innovative, value added services that are used simultaneously over the same network platforms. Life Telecom provides a wide range of services – telephony, broadband internet connectivity, advanced IPTV and video services, advanced video-communication (video-conferencing for businesses and video-streaming for live events), Tele-surveillance - to all market segments ranging from large, small and medium sized businesses, small offices and home offices to residential customers. Also, Life Telecom would be shortly providing mobile broadband wireless access (hotspot Wi-Fi) & virtual private networks (VPNs). Life Telecom can also deploy and implement Wireless infrastructures across buildings, campuses, hospitals, and cities. - Innovation and service differentiation: Life

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Liberty, Equlaity, Power Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Liberty, Equlaity, Power - Essay Example They are extensively denoted in the bill of rights. Before the fight for liberty, African American men were not allowed to vote. Nevertheless, with the fifteenth amendment, they gained the right to vote. The facet of equality is based on membership of a community. The new chapter of equality emerged through struggle for citizenship in the American society through civil movements. Criminal justice policies been developed to change the issue of discrimination against the people of color in the United States. During the slavery period, people of the color were discriminated against. It was tricky for them to secure good jobs even after the end of slavery. Good housing and social services were denied owing to criminal records, which emanated as a result of laws that had been put in place to discriminate against them. Nevertheless, revolution created a room for equality. The civil was an opening door for the end of inequality. Although there was notion that civil rights amendments would have helped to end racism and economic exploitation, different forms of discrimination and exploitation emerged. This was achieved through manipulation of law through legal maneuvering, which ensured that there were twisted phrases of the law that encouraged inequality. For instance, in 1896, the famous Supreme Court ruling with the phrase â€Å"separate but equal† is a perfect example that encouraged inequality. This was the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896). Presently, criminal justices policies can be argued to indirectly endorse the issue of inequality. Mass arrest and incarceration of people of color have been evident. In the year 2007, there were over 2 million people confined in US prisons, but the majorities were black and brown people. In fact, the statistics indicates that one out of three African American men is incarcerated. Additionally, mass incarceration is highly

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Occupational Safety and Health Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Occupational Safety and Health Act - Essay Example The concerns that had prompted passage of this landmark law were hardly unfamiliar or new ("Act of Congress: Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970"). Accidents in America's factories and mines had ruined thousand of worker's lives. Federal statistics compiled since 1911 had also documented a growing epidemic of work-related illness and diseases. The first federal statute passed by Congress that required safety equipment in the workplace was the Safety Appliance Act which was applied only to railroad equipment. In 1910, the Congress established the federal Bureau of Mines to conduct research into the mine safety in response to a series of highly-publicized and deadly mine explosions and collapses. The broadest early federal reform measures - legislation establishing the Department of Labor in 1913 and banning exploitive child labor in 1938 - intentionally left most regulatory power over industrial working conditions with the states. The Esch Act of 1912 effectively outlawed the p roduction of white phosphorus matches, and the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act banned federal contract work done under hazardous conditions. These laws, as well as the growing number of labor unions and public anger toward poor workplace safety, led to the significant reductions in worker accidents for a time. State regulations of workplace began as part of the Progressive response to the industrial revolution during the 19th century. Early in the twentieth century, the increasing labor movement lobbied successfully for further regulation. Eventually, the federal government became involved in workplace safety during the Franklin's Roosevelt presidency. (US History Encyclopedia: Occupational Safety and Health Act). Industrial production increased significantly in the United States during World War II, and industrial accidents soared. Winning the war took precedence over safety, and most labor unions were more concerned with maintaining wages in the face of severe inflation than with workplace health and safety. After the war ended, however, workplace accident rates remained high and began to rise. In the two years preceding OSHA's enactment, 14,000 workers died each year from workplace hazards, and another 2 million were disabled or harmed. Additionally, the "chemical revolution" introduced a vast array of new chemical compounds to the manufacturing environment. The health effects of these chemicals were poorly understood, and workers received few protections against prolonged or high levels of exposure. While a few states, such as California and New York, had enacted workplace safety as well as workplace health legislation, most states had not changed their workplace protection laws since the turn of the century. Workplace Conditions Before the Passage of the OSHA In the mid - 1960's, growing awareness of the environmental impact of many chemicals, and the changes in America industry, exposed the ineffectiveness of existing state and federal laws. In 1965, the Public Health Service published an influential report that outlined some of the recently discovered technological dangers, including chemicals linked to cancer. The report called for a major national occupational health effort, criticizing existing federal law as too limited and state programs as uncoordinated and insufficient. The AFL-CIO and other labor organizations urged President Lyndon Johnson to support the report's recommendations. The Passage of

Friday, August 23, 2019

Dream act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Dream act - Essay Example Here the Dream Act allows temporary residency only for minors who have good character. â€Å"Hence the dream Act gives an opportunity to build the career of helpless children; I support the bill with wholeheartedness† (Thesis). It is not abnormal to punish the immigrants who lands up illegally in America because many a times theses people turns out to be criminals and offenders of law. But the children migrated along with their parents are innocent and helpless. So bill like Dream Act saves their lives. Even though Dream act nurture the life of migrant youth, this can motivate more illegal immigrants to land in America. They would be motivated to come to USA and utilize the dream act to make up and establish the lives of their children. America is a rich country and it is the obligation of the country to give home to poor and less fortunate people of developing and poor countries. But this must be done on a restrictive amount. It is not necessary for the government to give shelter to all illegal immigrants but only to a certain percentage of migrants who has good human values. Illegal immigrant is poor and helpless, but this does not omit the fact of them having unethical character and criminal background. In such a circumstance, the government should ban the arrival of illegal immigrants and should deport the one who cross the borders by cheating the border security. It is mostly Mexican and Hispanic migrants who cross the border illegally spread violence, crime and substance abuse in United States Dream Act is indefinitely a good approach to help the children of illegal immigrants but government should also give education to the adults who cross American borders. Educating these people bring in some refinement in their personality and would make them potential for professional employment. If people are taught professional skill and techniques, they can make a living in their own county. After educating and giving them professional skill, they would be

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Society in China Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Society in China - Research Paper Example The Cultural Revolution, as per the narration of the Jan Wong, was launched in May 1966. Mao, the then chairperson of the Communist Party of China, alleged that the elements of the bourgeois were infiltrating the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. Mao Zedong insisted that the revisionists, ought to be removed through violent class struggle. The youth of China, responded to Mao's appeal by forming Red Guard groups around the country-Party leadership itself. In cultures that are non-industrialized, two major forces define gender disparity in the distribution of work and these are the men’s greater power and physic and women’s childbearing and nurturing responsibilities. As long as maternal care does not disrupt a mother’s activities and if women have a way of enhancing their bodily strength, they can and do partake in activities that are in the contrary male dominated. Presence of such means varies over culture and environment. ² Therefore, men and women are not downright different people. Women may have more of a particular characteristic; there may be traits that men have more of, but it should not be a case that men and women are essentially and radically different on these psychological characteristics This resulted to widespread factional struggles in all lifestyles. In the top leadership, it led to a mass purge of senior officials who were accused of taking a "capitalist road", most notably Liu shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. During the same period, Mao's personality cult grew to immense proportions. During China’s long revolutionary years, the state both promoted and negated new roles for women. The most severe reaction against female activism was the Guomindang’s counter-revolution, called the White Terror, when female activists were accused of being instigators of societal chaos. During Chiang Kai-shek’s relentless hunt for Communists, thousands of women were murdered and raped, including those who had simply bobbed their hair. The Communists, for their part, turned away from what they saw as bourgeois feminist reforms to attack the socioeconomic conditions they perceived as the source of all female oppressions. The idea was that once gender difference was erased, women would be freed to help spearhead the â€Å"new society.† Mao Zedong coined the phrase â€Å"Women Hold up Half the Sky,† and set in motion a campaign to get women out of the home and into the work force. Selections from oral histories collected during the period illustrate his attempts to mobilize the lowest in society, the female peasant, so she could confront â€Å"feudalâ₠¬  fathers, husbands, or property owners. Millions of people were persecuted in the violent factional struggles that ensued across the country, and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary 2345imprisonment, torture, sustained harassment, and seizure of property. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement, Rather, the DCM. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed. Cultural and religious sites were ransacked. Female-specific concerns continued facing disregard, during the Cultural Revolution when equality between sexes faced assumption and class war took

Meaning of Life and Personality Essay Example for Free

Meaning of Life and Personality Essay What is personality? Personality is defined as a ingrained and relatively enduring patterns of thoughts, feeling and behavior. How can anybody be certain how his or her personality is going to turn out. I think people go through many different types an stages of personality throughout life. I think there no way to judge a personality, and thats if you go by what researchers go by. Do researchers gather all the people in the world and judge the way they act, think, and go through what they do? I think everybody chooses their own personality, what I mean is there personality goes through what prson want it to be. People change their personality many times, at different times. People change their personality through the environment they go to everyday. There is really is no defintion to me, because personality changes too many times and people change each time to a new social world. A personality is very unique to a person, because it defines a person characterstics toward life. Personality usually has to constitute the meaning of that person and the way he or she lives in the world. Personality has to be with that person at all times, because it will help it will help distinguish you from other people. Personality is a key element for a person to establish his or hers in the social world. One person can not only have on personality because that person thakes on a different personality of the series of things that a person is going about. This all comes to point how does personality develops in a person. Reasechers think personality develops in the enviroment and is through heredity.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Social Construction of Gender Essay

Social Construction of Gender Essay Heteronormativity is the cultural bias or the view that puts clear boundary between male and female, which emphasizes normal sexual and romantic relationship between two genders. As freshmen in college, I have a friend name Joe whom I did not expect him to be gay. At first, I thought it was impossible him to be gay. But as he began to have boyfriend, I began to see people around them and the society viewed him as abnormal and weird. For example, his parents told him to be straight in order to emphasize about being normal. There are social boundaries to people who are not straight and the society encourages people to be Heteronormative. Therefore, Heteronormativity is a fixed view about living and having normal thoughts about sexuality and gender role. Prompt 1: Gender Construction in our society Gender Identity can be defined by the way people act as a male and female, which males have different sets of mind about something that females do not. Even though man and woman have difference in physical part, People learn more about their gender identity through experiences since their childhoods to until they get old. There are many biological differences in both men and women, but it does not have impact on how gender shapes in peoples lives. If gender did not exist in our society, I am pretty sure there would be gender confusion where many females would be considered as male, and many males would be considered as females. There are many sociocultural factors that have influenced on gender role. Since the social construction of gender is mainly formed by the gender rule and stereotype in our society, gender identity is constructed by the representation of gender norms in mass media productions, parental expectations about gender identity, and the beliefs of different religious t raditions about gender. In todays society, Mass Media Production like movie, video games, and magazines influenced so many young males and females and also some older people. For example in the movie clips Miss Representation(2010) , clearly portrays how women should act around people and in society. In the movie Miss Representation, the women are shown as sexually explicit figure toward the audiences and also emphasize how women should look like in order to satisfy gender role. Because many women are shown in negative way for most of time, people actually think that women are exactly like in the movie or magazines, which is not true. This movie was trying to say that people are heavily influenced by media. All of people watch TV every single day, and many of them enjoy watching movie. By watching them, they unconsciously think about the actors or models and form their gender roles. In the reading Breaking the Model, the author said I wanted to be popular, like the typical girl o n TV. I wanted to be thin- to fit in. (Rodriguez, CP 54). Due to the fact that many of women want to look sexy, beautiful, and thin, they see the model as their dream and it motivates them to be like them, which could cause in eating disorder and depression. They desire to fit into certain group of the society in order to feel good and superior about themselves. On the other hand, the producers of media know what teens like and purposefully make media productions that appeal to them. Finally, the media gradually forms peoples thoughts about their genders by emphasizing that they should look like them. The social construction of gender is caused by the expectation of people and the way society view people. Since the childhood, everyone received certain expectations from their parents and relatives to be either grown up as normal masculine male and feminine female. In the reading from Night to His Day, it said that In social interaction throughout their lives, individuals learn what i s expected, see what is expected, act and react in expected way, and thus simultaneously construct and maintain the gender order. (Lorber, CP 14). Unlike media effect on gender identity, children learn their behaviors and form their minds by listening to their parents and other people. For example, some boys learn to be male by playing tough sports like football. Additionally, girls learn to be female by imitating the way their mothers dress and act. It would be weird for people to act in unexpected way and might result in isolation from the family and the society. In the reading Why Boys Dont Play With Dolls, it said that a girl with a doll and a boy with truck explain why men are from Mars and women are from Venus, why wives do housework and husbands just dont understand (Pollitt, CP 18). Since childhood, we modeled our parents and acted according to what they told us to do. There are gender rules which states that male has to act in certain way and female has to act in another w ay. Because gender stereotype and expectations existed and people kept acting in expected way for long period of time, people were able to form gender identity by modeling and following their ancestors. All of these would demonstrate how our social norms have big impact on gender expectations for people. Lastly, religious view toward gender would form the social construction of gender and could lead to discrimination about gender, especially toward female. As right now, there are few countries where sexism is still going on against women due to the cultural and religious view among people. In many countries, Women are treated differently than men in various ways. For example in the reading Night to His Day, the author wrote that In societies that create the greatest gender difference, such as Saudi Arabia, women are kept out of sight behind walls or veils, have no civil rights, and often create a cultural and emotional world of their own (Bernard 1981) ( Lorber CP, 15). Because Sau di Arabia had this belief for long time, the people just think this as religious belief that came from their parents or ancestors. In most of countries, women are seen as weak and emotional through religious belief that was viewed by the society, which lead to certain type of gender identity. Many of religious belief like Catholic and Muslim emphasized about transgender and homosexuality. According to religious belief of Catholic, it emphasizes people not to change their gender through surgical treatment and marrying a same gender. If they disobey the rule of religion, they would lose respect from other people and feel they are not worthy enough to believe in that religion by the fact they did not follow the gender rule in society. It is important to understand that people have high tendency to conform among groups, and it would result in following normal cultural and religious belief toward gender identity and role. Gender is mainly formed by our social construction and each indivi dual is impacted by people and objects they encounter every day in their lives. It is not possible to just form our gender based on body difference between men and women because it does not do anything to our mind and habits. As people grow up from childhood, they begin to actually see how it feels to be fit into the right gender identity group through media production they encounter, expectations from other people that caused from gender stereotype, and religious value of each country. Therefore, I strongly agree that the sociocultural experiences have huge impact on individuals gender identity through the gender rule and gender stereotype.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Web-Based Tool for PowerPoint

Web-Based Tool for PowerPoint According to Ellen, Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program that helps us create presentations slides and then present it on the computer or projection screen. Nowadays, the use of Microsoft PowerPoint in universities is increasing dramatically. Almost every lecturers and students use presentation slides for teaching and learning. Lecturers can create a presentation slide easily with important notes inside the slide without have to print out the notes for students. Furthermore, lecturers can share their presentation slides to the students by upload the slides to the E-Learning. Students can download and read it or share it with others. Problem arises when some of the lecturers or students want to share or reuse some learning object such as picture, video or sound inside the PowerPoint slides. They have to search and view each of the PowerPoint slides in order to locate the learning objects. Hence, a web based tool, Learning Object Extraction for Microsoft PowerPoint is one of the method to solve this issue. Learning Object Extraction for Microsoft PowerPoint is a web based tool which the users have to access to internet in order to use the tool. This tool can extract various format of PowerPoint such as ppt, pptx, ppsx, pptm. Futhermore, this tool can extract learning object with various format such as jpg, png, gif, flv, wmv, mov, mp3, wma /.wav. Problem Background Microsoft PowerPoint is widely used in schools and universities. PowerPoint slides that had created were used by lecturers or students for teaching and learning. It is difficult for users to share or reuse a particular learning object that in format of Microsoft PowerPoint. As a result, users have to search and view each of the presentation slides in order to share or reuse the materials. In addition, most of the users have to store the whole presentation slides in order to save a particular learning object. This make the users faced some difficulties to reuse or share the learning object such as a picture or video. Hence, a complete tool needs to be develops in order to overcome these issues. Purpose The purpose of this project is to develop a web based tool that will extract the learning object that in various formats from Microsoft PowerPoint presentation slides. Objective The objectives of this project are: Develop a web based tool for the users to extract the learning object into separated format from Microsoft PowerPoint presentation slides. Develop an interface for the web based tool to let the users search and browse the learning object after perform the extraction. Scope The scopes of this project are: The web based tool is designed for students and lecturers in universities or school. This tool will run in a server and every user can access it by log in to the webpage. This tool supports several types of Microsoft PowerPoint format such as ppt, pptx, ppsx, pptm. This tool can extract learning object with various format such as jpg, png, gif, flv, wmv, mov, mp3, wma, wav. Significance of Project This tool can give convenient for its users by extract the presentation slides automatically. Users can share or reuse the learning object easily by using the extraction tool to extract the object from presentation slides. In addition, users can search for the learning object without open and view each of the presentation slides after perform the extraction. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Microsoft PowerPoint is the leader of all in presentation programs compare to Corel Presentation or Apples Key-note. (Emily, 2007). People all around the world use presentation slides every day. Bulleted text, graphics, video, sound or animated slides are major content of a presentation slides. We can embed images, videos or sound by using Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technology. Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), is a Microsoft Windows feature that combines various application data into one compound document. (Thomas and Krishnan, 2002). According to Peter (2010), it is a medium for bringing programs beside Microsoft PowerPoint into the mix without leaving Microsoft PowerPoint. 2.2 Research on the Existing Tool or Method It is necessary to analyze all the current tool or current methods that exist in the internet in order to develop a complete Learning Object Extraction for Microsoft PowerPoint. There are one similar standalone application and a method on how to extract learning object are found for analysis study. The standalone application will be discussed in Section 2.2.1 while the method on how to extract learning object will be discussed in Section 2.2.2. 2.2.1 PowerPoint Image Extractor V1.2 PowerPoint Image Extractor V1.2 is a freeware. It can be downloaded at http://alainlecomte.free.fr/Download.htm#PPImageExtractor. This application can extract pictures and wave files from Microsoft PowerPoint and slideshow that in format of .ppt and .pps. After perform the extraction, the image files and wave files will be separate in a different folder by the application. This standalone application will run under Windows environment such as Windows NT/XP/Vista/7. Below are the screenshot of the application. Figure2.1.JPG Figure 2.1 Screenshot of PowerPoint Image Extractor V1.2 2.2.2 Extract Images and Sound from Microsoft PowerPoint All of these methods are written at pptfaq (2010). There are different methods to extract presentation files that created in different version of Microsoft PowerPoint such as in Microsoft PowerPoint 2010, Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 or Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 through 2003. There are several steps in order to extract images or sounds from Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 with file extension in PPTX, PPSX, PPTM, PPSM, POTX, or POTM. Firstly, right click the presentation slides and choose rename. Then, add .zip to the end of the file name and it will look similar like this type of format: myfile.ppts.zip. After that, double click the zip file to open it in windows explorer. There is a folder name PPT, double click the folder and the images or sounds will be kept in media folder. Drag and drop the media folder to anywhere in your hard drive to save the objects. Finally, by right click the presentation file and delete the .zip extension to open it with Microsoft PowerPoint. The method to extract presentation files created by Microsoft PowerPoint 2000, 2003 and 2007 are the same. Firstly, double click to open the presentation slides. Then, click Office button and click Save As other format. In the dialog box, make sure the type of save as are save in web page (*.htm, *.html). Finally, choose a place to save it and then close the presentation slides. Microsoft PowerPoint will create a single file and in the mean times will create another folder. Inside the created folder, there are whole bunch of files. The embedded images or sounds files will be among of the files. Justification of Learning Object Extraction for Microsoft PowerPoint Learning Object Extraction is developed as web based tool to improve the current standalone application and methods by adding more supported format of presentation slides. In addition, this web based tool will extract learning object with several format such as jpg, png, gif, flv, wmv, mov, mp3, wma, wav. This tool will run in a server and require the users to upload the presentation slides to the server and extraction of learning object will be performed at the same time. Therefore, the current application and methods are studied for implementation of Learning Object Extraction for Microsoft PowerPoint in order to achieve the goal. 2.4 Research on Current Technology There are several options to choose for web development such as HTML for static web pages, JSP and ASP.NET for dynamic web pages. The most appropriate language use on the development of Learning Object Extraction for Microsoft PowerPoint is either JSP or ASP.NET. 2.4.1 Research on Java Server Pages Technology The use of Java Server Pages has grown rapidly since after the introduced of The Java 2 Platform. Many web developers choose to use JSP to build e-commerce system, dynamic websites and web services. A JSP can compile into servlet and servlet can act as a middleware to read and sent data between client and server. (Marty and Larry, 2009). Web service will make use of servlets container such as Apache Tomcat and then execute numerous of code that define by the developer in order to perform the complete web pages. 2.4.2 Research on Active Server Pages Dot NET Technology ASP is a technology that enables web developer to build dynamic and interactive Web pages quickly and easily. We could include VBScript or JScript code commands in the ASP to be executed on the Web server before the page was sent to the users browser. ASP used script between and percentage sign to control server-side behavior. (Bill et al, 2010). Developer can firstly build an ASP page with only HTML static page and then can define own code to make the ASP page dynamically. Justification for Choosing JSP as the Coding Language JSP technology adheres to the Write Once, Run Anywhere philosophy of the Java architecture. (Sun Microsystems, 1999). JSP technology can be run in any operating systems that support Java such as Unix/Linux, Mac OS or others. Compared to ASP, JSP is more popular and tool used to create JSP web pages is also free of charge. Apart from that some of the component such as JavaBeans can be reused for others web pages. This can help the developer to complete the web development more faster due to the flexibility of Java technology.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Comparing The Flea and Valentine Essay -- John Donne Sex Carol Ann Duf

Comparing The Flea and Valentine "The flea" is a metaphysical poem about a man trying to argue a virgin into bed to have sexual intercourse with him. This poem was most likely written to amuse the readers and probably more for a larger male audience. The poem was written in the late 17th century in a period where sex within marriage was like a household chore, but socially, sex before marriage was like a sin, because society was extremely religious. John Donne is attempting to get these thoughts out of her head and persuade her to have sex with him. Metaphysical poets use a lot of elaborate and extended comparisons. They wrote energetic and vigorous poems that went against the common literature of the time. There are three stanzas in the poem; all 9 lines each, making it a regular stanza and rhyming form. Each stanza consists of three rhyming couplets and one rhyming triplet. The first stanza is strong and persuasive and is the introduction to the poem. In this stanza he makes the girl look at the flea. "Mark but this flea, and mark in this" "How little that which thou deniest me is" With the flea being the title, introducing the word flea into the first line of the poem gets straight into the poem. There is no build up; it is just like a conversation with Donne talking to the girl. He also implies that such a little thing like virginity should not deny them of making love. The girl may seem offended by this, but it does not stop John Donne. He tries to make the girl feel stuck together with him and that they are as one. "It suck'd me first, and now sucks thee" "And in this flea our two bloods mingled be" The two bloods mixing together like sexual intercourse. During sexual inter... ... times. I don't feel it was a very good way to go about telling someone of the love that you hold for them. The part of "The Flea" which I enjoyed the most is where he used religious imagery to seduce the girl. If he hadn't had used that then I don't think that his plan would've worked. Also, the quick way in which he changed his view on the argument after the girl killed the flea was very sharp in my opinion and sly and cunning. I think that Carol Ann Duffy's poem was all about showing your love in very definitive ways and not just with cards and chocolate, but with something that actually means something. I think that it would appeal more to the female of the species, and the flea would appeal more to the male of the species. Metaphysical poetry appeals to me, and so does John Donne and I would expect that many of his poems were similar to this.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Drunk Bus Should Be Kept Around Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive

The â€Å"Drunk Bus† Should Be Kept Around I remember hearing stories of such a thing called the â€Å"drunk bus† before I came to college, but I was not exactly sure what it was. I just figured the bus took a bunch of drunken college students to the bars when they wanted to go. Now that I am a first-year student at State U, I understand I was not that far from the truth. Some say the bus should be taken away, but the fact of the matter is the bus is a necessity at college since there will always be drinking. This way, when all of the students are done drinking at school and want to go to the bars, they are not putting themselves or any other members of the community in danger by drinking and driving. Safety is always a factor Of course, the community is concerned about safety, since most of the students at State U take advantage of the nickel pitcher nights at the popular local bar Malarky’s, they always know they have a safe ride back home without putting anyone else in the community at risk. I am certain the townspeople feel much safer knowing all the intoxicated students are on a bus...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Decision-Making Model Essay

The human decision-making process has been described by the development of several frameworks. The alternative for the maximize utility of the decision is selected by a fully informed, as well as, knowledgeable decision maker in the Rational Model. A satisfactory decision alternative is sought by the decision maker due to the causes of time, information, and space constraints according to the Bounder Rationality Model. It is hypothesized by the Organizational Model that available procedures are used by the decision maker for the solution of problems of decisions in a continuously updated organizational memory. Conflicting values and interests are confronted by the decision makers in the Muddling through Model, and an incremental improvement in the outcome is achieved by the selection of alternative with minimal organizational changes. An intermeshing of problems, solutions, and decision maker interest are represented by decisions that are forced by social and political factors in an anarchistic environment according to the Garbage Can Model. The criteria are met best by the identification of alternative with the use of relationship that is made between the criteria, events, and alternative by the decision maker in the Classical Decision Theory Model. During the selection process, conflicting constraints can be confronted by the decision maker, as intangible or tangible criteria would have to be dealt in uncertain events. The situation is assessed, a single alternative is generated and evaluated, and alternative for a satisfactory solution of the problem is selected by the decision makers according to the Naturalistic Decision-Making Model. Outcomes of the decision-making process are focused by some of the proposed models like Classical and Rational Decision Theory formulations. A limited set of decision activities is highlighted by other models like Bounded Rationality Models and Naturalistic Decision-Making Models. A comprehensive and integrated view of decision-making has been offered by none of the proposals. In addition, not all the situations of the decision-making can be applied with any formulations of these proposals. For instance, operational and tactical decisions can be applied with the Organizational Model. However, strategic decisions cannot be applied with this model due to incomplete understanding of the problem, as well as, limited availability of the knowledge of the problem. In this regard, the most popular model of the human decision-making process has been the three-phase paradigm of design, intelligence, and choice by the Simon. Virtually, all other proposed frameworks have been implied by this most general paradigm. However, an implementation phase of the Simon’s formulation has been concluded with the expansion of such scrutiny. Reality is observed by the decision maker during the intelligence phase. A fundamental understanding regarding the existing problems, as well as, new opportunities is gained by the maker. In addition, the general quantitative and qualitative information is acquired by the decision maker for the addressing of different opportunities, as well as, the problems. In the design phase, a specific and precise model is developed by the decision-maker, by which, the discovered problems and opportunities are examined systematically. Decision alternatives, uncontrollable events, criteria, and numerical, as well as, symbolic relationships will be consist in this model. The ensuing choice phase constitutes of the generation of recommended actions from the evaluation of the specified alternatives by the usage of explicit models logically. The analyses and recommendations are pondered by the decision maker during the subsequent implementation phase. In this regard, the consequences are weighed, and sufficient confidence is gained in the decision-making process. In addition, an implementation plan is developed, financial, human, and material resources are secured, the plan is put into the action. After the implementation of the final choice, the new reality should be observed by the decision maker. In addition, intelligence, design, choice, and implementation should be regarded and followed by the decision maker. Moreover, the need for revisions at preceding phases might be suggested by the phase’s analyses. For instance, adjustments of the previous design might be necessitated by the analyses during the choice. Conceptually, individual or group decision-making is applied with the decision-making process in the same manner. In practice, the communication-intensive aspects of cooperative problem solving must be accommodated by the group decision-making. In addition, voting, ranking, rating, and other consensus-developing methodologies should be supported by the usage of structured techniques. Group and organizational collaboration support should be provided by the development of this consensus. Decision-making model can be operated by the use of a variety of measures. Outcomes are dealt by some measures, and process outcomes are involved by the others. Positive decision outcomes can include: Increases in returns, costs reduction, and increment in the flow of information are some of the examples of the gains in the performance of the organization. When the understanding of a person regarding a current problem, as well as, its solution is developed, the decision-maker’s maturity develops. In addition, the improvement of the general problem-solving skills also results in the maturation of the decision-maker. Objectively, recording can be done regarding the number of opportunities, problems, as well as, alternatives. Experts, as well as, person’s evaluations can assess such efforts and subjective assessments. In expert’s evaluations, practice would be observed by the experienced decision makers and the examinee’s efforts will be rated. In this regard, a structured rating form will be used for its support. The examinees are used by the directed self-examinations, and a facilitator is used for the purpose of guidance. In some decision-making situations, the improvement of the organizational performance becomes impossible due to the competition, internal restrictions, external constraints, and several other factors. Under these circumstances, the main decision outcome will be the learning, training, and various other beneficial side effects during the maturation of the decision maker. Process Enhancements in the ability of a person or group are involved in the process improvements for the implementation of the phases and steps in the decision-making process. Experts, as well as, person’s evaluations can assess such efforts and with the help of subjective assessments. In expert’s evaluations, practice would be observed by the experienced decision makers and the proficiency of the examinee during each phase and step of the decision-making process will be rated. In this regard, a structured rating form will be used for its support. The examinees are used by the directed self-examinations, and a facilitator is used for the purpose of guidance. The use of accounting tools is involved in the process tracing, in which, the decision aid is embedded for the recording, as well as, reporting of the actions of the examinee during the decision-making process. In addition, the process enhancements may be manifested through: The time that is needed during the structuring of the problem by the user is reduced in a hike in personal efficiency. In addition, in a given time period, the number of alternatives is increased during the evaluation of the user, which is also an example of the hike in personal efficiency. The time of the decision-making is reduced, and the amount of pertinent information is increased from the decision-making is an improvement in the personal productivity. Objectively, recording can be done regarding the time and number of evaluated alternatives. Expert, as well as, direct self-evaluations by the activity of an individual or group can assess the amount of pertinent information, wisdom, and knowledge, that is, subjective assessments. In any particular management situation, more importance might be given to the support for some phases, as compared with the support for others. The process should be improved for at least the relevant phases by a given aid in the decision-making process. The decision outcome and process measures have been summarized in the Table 1. In addition, the measurements have been obtained by the available approaches, which have also been summarized in the table. As such, a series of guidelines has been offered by the table for the operation of the decision-making process. For instance, the implementation phase of the decision-making process consists of confidence and commitment of the decision maker. The performance of the decision maker during these steps is measured by the process tracing, expert ratings, and directed self-evaluations, as indicated by the Table 1.

Science fair project: sun light vs artificial sun light

Sun light vs articical light One of the main benefits of artificial light is that you can control how many hours of light per day your plants receive. This way, those living in northern or southern latitudes can provide their plants with light for growth and development even when the sun sets early, in essence tricking the plants into believing that it is summertime and that they should continue to grow rather than become dormant or, in the case of annuals, die. In addition, your plants will receive constant direct light for as long as you leave the lights turned on.Read more: http://www. ehow. om/about_6720270_sunlight-artificial-light-plant- growth. html#ixzz2isDOMJQa Incandescent Light Although affordable, incandescent lights provide little of the blue-spectrum light essential to plant growth. They are less efficient than other artificial lights as they produce less illumination while utilizing more energy. To draw the most benefit from an incandescent light, you would have to pla ce it close to your plants, and because incandescent lights produce more heat than other types of bulbs, this would likely result in burning your plants.Incandescent bulbs also have very short lives. High- Intensity Discharge Light High-intensity discharge lights produce far more illumination while using much less electricity than incandescent bulbs. In addition, while they produce a considerable amount of heat, you can hang them twice as far away from your plants as you would an incandescent bulb, so burning of the plants is less likely. High-pressure sodium lamps emit much red-spectrum light and little in the blue spectrum, making them ideal for greenhouse flowers to supplement natural sunlight and encourage blooming.Metal halide bulbs emit more blue-spectrum light, making them perfect or indoor growing operations for plants that will not flower, such as decorative plants and herbs. HPS bulbs last 12 times longer than incandescent bulbs, and MH bulbs can last five times as long. F luorescent Light Fluorescent lights produce less luminosity than high-intensity discharge lights, though far more than do incandescent bulbs. Fluorescents also produce very little heat and can hang very close to your plants.Bulbs rated in the higher Kelvin temperature range (5,000 to 6,500) emit more blue-spectrum light and those in the lower range (2,700 to 3,000) emit more red-spectrum light, although both also provide ull-spectrum light in lower intensities. Compact fluorescent lights will last five times as long as incandescent bulbs, and the straight T-5 full-spectrum fluorescents will last 10 times as long. Read more. nttp://www . enow. com/aoou growth. html#ixzz2isEHgmnp In general, sunlight is better for plant growth as it is intense and contains the full spectrum of electromagnetic radiation required for optimal plant growth.Artificial light, if it is an ordinary room light, will only support low-light tolerant plants. Most artificial light sources (fluorescent and incandes cent) do not provide the full isible light spectrum that is required by plants for optimal growth, this results in plants that are tall and spindly (etiolated) and sometimes discolored. However, there are special lights with a spectrum that is tailored for growing plants. They have to be on for longer hours than sunlight, but as long as a plant is getting enough light-energy to manufacture its food, it will grow well.It doesn't matter whether that light is coming from the sun or from grow lights. The downside to extended exposure to light is the plants metabolic functions operate twice as hard for the same amount of output. Recent studies have also highlighted ome of the negative aspects of extended photosynthetic periods (extended light reactive period and shortened dark reaction period). There are times when artificial light has an advantage. Hydroponic gardening with artificial light makes it possible to grow plants in unreliable climates that are lacking in sunshine – thi nk of the long â€Å"night† periods of areas of the northern hemisphere.In some places in Canada forage for animals is produced indoors during the winter months in artificial conditions. Supplemental lighting is used in horticulture to produce plants in flower outside of their normal flowering period. For instance Christmas cactus, poinsettias, tulips, narcissus, chrysanthemums, etc. Many houseplants grow better under artificial lamps, not because of the lights, but because it keeps them away from drafty windowsills! Plants will grow better under sunlight; artificial light lacks the complete spectrum of light provided by the sun. But a photon is a photon – and light is light – wnetner It comes Trom tne sun or a Tlasnllgnt vastly more energy comes Trom tne sun than from any artificial light. But the light from the sun is different from a street lamp another way: most artificial light doesn't emit as much energy in the red and blue region of the light spectrum as sunlight does. In other words, different ratios of reds, yellows and blues all combine together to make up white sunlight.Researchers can successfully grow plants using only artificial light in growth chambers. But sunlight is best for most plants. It's generally more intense than artificial light, and it's pretty equally distributed among the different wavelengths that earthly plants have evolved to like best. And there's another difference between lamps – even â€Å"grow lamps† – and sunlight. Grow lamps need energy to light up. Sunlight is unlimited and free. http://earthsky. org/human-world/artificial-light-plant- growth

Friday, August 16, 2019

Modernism Art Essay

As some critics contended, postmodernism represents a break with the modernist notion that architecture should be technologically rational, austere and functional, discuss the ways in which one postmodern architect has developed strategies which overcome these tendencies. Juxtaposition is seen between the characteristics of early 20th century modern architecture and the artistic endeavours of postmodernism that followed. To represent the ‘Less is More’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) notion the modernist tendencies had adopted, Robert Venturi built a ‘Ghost Structure’ to imply architecture had no longer become an art form and was merely just a ‘spectator’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) in society. This essay will discuss ways in which the architect Robert Venturi adopts methods to overcome these tendencies that architecture has lost meaning and ways in which he attempts to remove himself with any links with the ‘post-modernist’ movement that he is viewed in having. Modern Architects saw their role as ‘reformers,’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) and tended to break with tradition and start anew. Considering it was a new revolutionary movement they tended to ignore potential problems and focused on the new modern advancements available. A modernist tendency was to build individually however Venturi claimed that a ‘building derives meaning from its context’ (Out Of the Ordinary, 2002) and evidently each individual location requires a different form of architectural style to represent this. In Venturi’s book ‘Complexity and Contradiction’ he quotes ‘familiar things seen in unfamiliar context become perceptually new as well as old’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) here he perhaps means in order for art to become worthy of aesthetic appreciation the viewer needs to see it in a different context. For example, Tracy Emin’s unmade bed was placed in an art gallery and was more acceptable and appreciated as ‘art’ rather than being viewed in its original, everyday context. Venturi was focused on the reason behind and the visual perception of architecture, he believed that in applying a ‘medley of styles’ (S.V.Moos, 1987, pg32) opposed to an ‘either/or ‘(R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) mind-set would offer a varied combination of architectural styles. Thus enabling to a successful response to the multitude of tastes society desired, as he was well aware that there were an  array of underlying problems of everyday life. Problems that modernist architects tended to ignore due to their concern of the solution not corresponding with what they believed to be their perfect design. Venturi disregards modernist tendencies as he favours a more eclectic style rather than the ‘less is more’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) approach modernism supports. Venturi aims to ensure his buildings have ties with historical architecture thus to draw meaning and value. This was to evoke a sense of familiarity whilst still staying in context with a more modern environment. Venturi believed in using his knowledge from what he had learned and new had worked in the past, so sought to apply these techniques to his designs. An example of this is Venturi’s State Mosque of Iraq; (Ref 1) finished in 1982. Here Venturi sought to draw from numerous styles and periods, specifically, Art Nouveau. The purpose of incorporating so many previous instances was to provide meaning and depth to architecture once more. Venturi was inspired by the work of Edwin Lutyen’s Capital Buildings in New Delhi as Lutyen had successfully managed to integrate historical themes to look postmodern however with an underlying modernist culture. Post-modernist architects questioned the modernist tendency that form depends on function. Walter Gropius quoted ‘aesthetic image and monumentality of a design are more important than functionalism.’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) However the context of the building was all the more important. Venturi championed this and consequently revived the tendency to ‘change things around’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) to develop and discover a more motivating form. He believed that the simplicity of modernist designs were so minimal that they therefore could easily be manipulated to communicate historic and ornamental tendencies of the past whilst taking advantage of the modern advancements in technology and construction all the while considering the users requirements. An example of this is the Vanna Venturi House, (Ref 2) completed in 1961 which has multiple references to past periods and styles. Firstly the street faà §ade denotes Michelangelo’s Porta Pia in Rome, Alessondra Vittoria’s Villa  Barabo at Maser and finally the Nymphaeum at Palladio. Venturi quotes to ‘recognising the complexities and contradictions’ (S.V.Moos, 1987, pg244) in which this building instils, nevertheless was an ideal way to overcome his statement that ‘less is a bore.’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg17) Additionally Venturi’s love of distortion over ‘straightforward’ and ‘ambiguous’ over ‘articulation’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) notion is a prime example of how he overcame the modernist tendency of clean, designed and hence forth the exclusion of design traits. Venturi was similarly intrigued by the parallel of how design in the past related to the hierarchy of upper and lower classes of his today and whether or not the aesthetics of said classes could be outlined into categories that reflected the social divisions. More precisely he connected classical modern architecture with that of ancient upper classes such as ruins of palaces and the contrast of how they were erected differently from that of how Venturi describes as ‘ordinary’ peoples buildings. (Learning from Las Vegas, 1972) Everything appears to be in relation to, form, space and social responsibility also implying modern architecture seems to have forgotten the art of steganography in which was not only significantly spanning across four centuries from the 15th to the 19th century but was also how architects learnt to progress, appreciate and respect the aesthetic awareness of form. This can be related back to the Renaissance in which the development of form has been linked to the visual for centuries. Venturi wanted to instil ‘new perceptions of old functions’ (Architecturerevived, 2011). He sought to draw from the past and carefully extract relevant features and characteristics and with the buildings context in the forefront of his mind, apply them. An illustration of is how he exhibited historical examples from Baroque and Egyptian architecture to symbolise frames and overwhelm small window openings. He symbolically implied unconventional messages or problems he thought society needed to address, an  example of this being The Guild House, completed in 1963, (Ref 3) Philadelphia. It displays a system of layers with artistic meaning,  organisation and a well thought out design process which represents the importance of historical and architectural discourse. By instilling a gold-plated TV Ariel on top of the building signified what Venturi described as the ‘relevant revolution of today.’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) It communicated the underlying idea that the importance of architecture could potentially be forgotten with the advancement of TV and media. Venturi was concerned that the development of these new technologies were influential on art, ‘a machine for living while practical, is emotionless,’ (Molly Jacques, 2009) and that all reference to historical architecture could be perceived as irrelevant or even worse, lost in the progressing society he found himself in. Therefore the TV Ariel became demonstrative of this, a representation based on the theme of classical architecture. It was also said to represent the buildings inhabitants, by simply stereotyping the occupants, believing they watch too much TV, and alas the symbolic connotation of classical statues in cathedrals. Modern architects had pragmatic views. They believed technological advances allowed for the disregard of all historical periods and movements. Led by the new approach of ‘machines for living’ (The Arts – Le Corbusier, Dominic Gallagher) as Le Corbusier cited, inevitably led to the demise of decorative and aesthetics in favour for more organised and geometrical buildings, in addition to this there was a new enthusiasm for building vertically. Venturi believed that the introduction of this technologically motivated notion advertently simplified architecture so much so it had seen a departure from the ‘experience of life.’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg17) Consequently becoming focused on what characterised as Realism. Venturi studied people in their everyday life and routines, purposely so as not to exclude designing for social problems and consequently to design for the truth. A somewhat stark contrast to the modernist notion of designing for simplification or t he ‘Less is More’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) idea, as stated by Miles Van De Rohe. This evidently left many social questions unanswered or as Paul Rudolf, a prominent modernist architect quoted ‘all problems can never be solved.’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) Furthermore the development of new materials and constructional technological advances allowed for modernist architects to design freely with focus on spatial forms and  geometric proportions. Miles Van De Rohes Pavilion’s illustrate this as they lacked any sort of reference to the past as his desire and purpose was to exploit new technologies to the fullest and have no recognized relation to the past whatsoever. Venturi opposed this as he looked to past historical architecture for inspiration and saw relevance in previous movements and styles. This allowed him to design with meaning and by combing new methods of construction and technology allowed him to develop and erect innovative buildings that reflected historical traits whilst still fitting into a modern society. A further modernist view was that architecture was about a blend on technology and art, and to inevitably reform some sort of style they believed had become lost in tradition. They admired the emerging new developments, especially in transportation and new materials becoming available. They tried to instil this new, sleek, streamlined look in their buildings. It was almost as if they wanted to draw a line under the past and render a new concept of design to follow with the new advances that were being made in other fields. Nonetheless Venturi held on to his belief that architecture hadn’t become so much as lost but instead had been forgotten. Stating that ‘conventional elements’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) could be applied using the advanced methods the modernists championed, and that some sort of balance could be achieved. It suggests a complete rejection of the past is not relevant in order to move forward in not only a social aspect but also to cater for what appeared to be, a demand for a new architectural style. Venturi was positive in regards to the new materials and construction methods now available and did not deny that they were not beneficial to society in his today and stating ‘conventional elements’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) constructed in ‘unconventional ways’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) supports this. As does his design for the Vanna Venturi House, (Ref 2) constructed in 1961 in which an array of modernist materials were used, such as steel. Yet he chose to mix both development in techniques and materials with historical features to create a design that was visually, functionally and constructed successfully in design. Venturi became interested in the Las Vegas Strip (Ref 4) leading him to write the book ‘learning from Las Vegas’ published in 1972. He came to the conclusion that the city had been built to accommodate for the  technologically savvy society. The architectural advertisement method Vegas seemed to have adopted had all been carefully angled to appeal to the people now driving down the strip. This was an original concept in which to appeal to an audience not necessarily on foot. The architecture almost becomes an advertisement in itself and the landscape inadvertently develops into its notorious messy, chaotic and fast paced form, which also reflected the traits the city and people in it had undertook. The architecture became a direct contrast to the modernist tendencies as the strip ‘serves culture rather than dictates it.’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) this was perhaps as Vegas was competitive and needed to directly interact with its audience in order to entice them. Venturi was inspired to take aspects of how Las Vegas had so forcefully removed the constraints of which had seemed to be put upon architecture and apply it, however in a not so embellished manner. Venturi states how The Guild House (Ref 3) was built with these intentions as well as having a ‘vernacular’ (Perkowitz, 2002) idea in mind. He went on to exploit every available inch of building space obtainable, by building up six-stories high. An attribute in fact of the modernist conception, however Venturi came to this design conclusion to enable the inhabitants to interact more conveniently with the outside. This was said to be purposely done so as not to break up the prevailing aesthetics of the street, nonetheless still managed to introduce another dimension to it. A fragmented outline of the Southern faà §ade directly contrasts with the smooth surface of the North. This intentionally done so as the building was built for the elderly so rather than isolate, the distorted faà §ade in fact drew the outside in, to allow for maximum interaction in a visual nature. Venturi attempts to imply a Baroque Palazzo style upon the Guild House (Ref 3) by the introduction of white tiles on the lower and upper levels of the building. Which was believed to have ‘symbolic’ and ‘representational’ (S.V.Moos, 1987, pg25) components that merge as a whole which in avertedly was to reflect the architectural connotation of the structure. It was understood that the Guild House (Ref 3) was built on a system of layers. Layers of artistic meaning and organisation, each one symbolising the importance of the  historical and architectural discourse. This is reinforced by Venturi testifying ‘knowledge instead of learning’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg12) supports the fact he draws upon what was effective in the past and relates it to his own compositions. He breaks up the historical foundations and is driven and instils a sense of the past throughout his designs. The modernist notion of designing for what the architect believed society wanted rather than needed impacted primarily upon the poorer societies. Hence forth Venturi was particularly careful when building The Guild House perhaps to show designing with the context and user in mind can be achieved successfully without social problems having to be ignored or forgotten, again a tendency modern architecture seemed to adopt in fear of losing aesthetic value. Venturi sought to prove you could have both. In reflection it can be said that Venturi is extremely knowledgeable and has an in-depth understanding and appreciation for historical architecture in which he feel shouldn’t be forgotten but instead should be admired and inspire future movements. Despite modernism striping what Venturi believed was the ‘art’ from architecture he fought to overcome these tendencies are drew upon relevant historic features and characterisations and applied them liberally to his design, in accordance to their context. Nevertheless he understood that designing for the user was significant and not to exclude social problems. He undertook the modernist concept of advanced ways to construct and recognised and understood the developing society, yet he chose not to ignore historic references and applied them in a system of layers within his designs to accommodate for the advanced civilization whilst electing to apply asceticism for both a functional and visual experience. As some critics contended, postmodernism represents a break with the modernist notion that architecture should be technologically rational, austere and functional, discuss the ways in which one postmodern architect has developed strategies which overcome these tendencies. Juxtaposition is seen between the characteristics of early 20th century modern architecture and the artistic endeavours of postmodernism that followed. To represent the ‘Less is More’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) notion  the modernist tendencies had adopted, Robert Venturi built a ‘Ghost Structure’ to imply architecture had no longer become an art form and was merely just a ‘spectator’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) in society. This essay will discuss ways in which the architect Robert Venturi adopts methods to overcome these tendencies that architecture has lost meaning and ways in which he attempts to remove himself with any links with the ‘post-modernist’ movement that he is viewed in having. Modern Architects saw their role as ‘reformers,’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) and tended to break with tradition and start anew. Considering it was a new revolutionary movement they tended to ignore potential problems and focused on the new modern advancements available. A modernist tendency was to build individually however Venturi claimed that a ‘building derives meaning from its context’ (Out Of the Ordinary, 2002) and evidently each individual location requires a different form of architectural style to represent this. In Venturi’s book ‘Complexity and Contradiction’ he quotes ‘familiar things seen in unfamiliar context become perceptually new as well as old’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) here he perhaps means in order for art to become worthy of aesthetic appreciation the viewer needs to see it in a different context. For example, Tracy Emin’s unmade bed was placed in an art gallery and was more acceptable and appreciated as ‘art’ rather than being viewed in its original, everyday context. Venturi was focused on the reason behind and the visual perception of architecture, he believed that in applying a ‘medley of styles’ (S.V.Moos, 1987, pg32) opposed to an ‘either/or ‘(R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) mind-set would offer a varied combination of architectural styles. Thus enabling to a successful response to the multitude of tastes society desired, as he was well aware that there were an array of underlying problems of everyday life. Problems that modernist architects tended to ignore due to their concern of the solution not corresponding with what they believed to be their perfect design. Venturi disregards modernist tendencies as he favours a more eclectic style rather than the ‘less is more’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) approach modernism supports. Venturi aims to ensure his buildings have ties with historical architecture thus to draw meaning and value. This was to evoke a sense of  familiarity whilst still staying in context with a more modern environment. Venturi believed in using his knowledge from what he had learned and new had worked in the past, so sought to apply these techniques to his designs. An example of this is Venturi’s State Mosque of Iraq; (Ref 1) finished in 1982. Here Venturi sought to draw from numerous styles and periods, specifically, Art Nouveau. The purpose of incorporating so many previous instances was to provide meaning and depth to architecture once more. Venturi was inspired by the work of Edwin Lutyen’s Capital Buildings in New Delhi as Lutyen had successfully managed to integrate historical themes to look postmodern however with an underlying modernist culture. Post-modernist architects questioned the modernist tendency that form depends on function. Walter Gropius quoted ‘aesthetic image and monumentality of a design are more important than functionalism.’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) However the context of the building was all the more important. Venturi championed this and consequently revived the tendency to ‘change things around’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) to develop and discover a more motivating form. He believed that the simplicity of modernist designs were so minimal that they therefore could easily be manipulated to communicate historic and ornamental tendencies of the past whilst taking advantage of the modern advancements in technology and construction all the while considering the users requirements. An example of this is the Vanna Venturi House, (Ref 2) completed in 1961 which has multiple references to past periods and styles. Firstly the street faà §ade denotes Michelangelo’s Porta Pia in Rome, Alessondra Vittoria’s Villa Barabo at Maser and finally the Nymphaeum at Palladio. Venturi quotes to ‘recognising the complexities and  contradictions’ (S.V.Moos, 1987, pg244) in which this building instils, nevertheless was an ideal way to overcome his statement that ‘less is a bore.’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg17) Additionally Venturi’s love of distortion over ‘straightforward’ and ‘ambiguous’ over ‘articulation’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) notion is a prime example of how he overcame the modernist tendency of  clean, designed and hence forth the exclusion of design traits. Venturi was similarly intrigued by the parallel of how design in the past related to the hierarchy of upper and lower classes of his t oday and whether or not the aesthetics of said classes could be outlined into categories that reflected the social divisions. More precisely he connected classical modern architecture with that of ancient upper classes such as ruins of palaces and the contrast of how they were erected differently from that of how Venturi describes as ‘ordinary’ peoples buildings. (Learning from Las Vegas, 1972) Everything appears to be in relation to, form, space and social responsibility also implying modern architecture seems to have forgotten the art of steganography in which was not only significantly spanning across four centuries from the 15th to the 19th century but was also how architects learnt to progress, appreciate and respect the aesthetic awareness of form. This can be related back to the Renaissance in which the development of form has been linked to the visual for centuries. Venturi wanted to instil ‘new perceptions of old functions’ (Architecturerevived, 2011). He sought to draw from the past and carefully extract relevant features and characteristics and with the buildings context in the forefront of his mind, apply them. An illustration of is how he exhibited historical examples from Baroque and Egyptian architecture to symbolise frames and overwhelm small window openings. He symbolically implied unconventional messages or problems he thought society needed to address, an  example of this being The Guild House, completed in 1963, (Ref 3) Philadelphia. It displays a system of layers with artistic meaning, organisation and a well thought out design process which represents the importance of historical and architectural discourse. By instilling a gold-plated TV Ariel on top of the building signified what Venturi described as the ‘relevant revolution of today.’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) It communicated the underlying idea that the importance of architecture could potentially be forgotten with the advancement of TV and media. Venturi was concerned that the development of these new technologies were influential on art, ‘a machine for living while practical, is emotionless,’ (Molly Jacques,  2009) and that all reference to historical architecture could be perceived as irrelevant or even worse, lost in the progressing society he found himself in. Therefore the TV Ariel became demonstrative of this, a representation based on the theme of classical architecture. It was also said to represent the buildings inhabitants, by simply stereotyping the occupants, believing they watch too much TV, and alas the symbolic connotation of classical statues in cathedrals. Modern architects had pragmatic views. They believed technological advances allowed for the disregard of all historical periods and movements. Led by the new approach of ‘machines for living’ (The Arts – Le Corbusier, Dominic Gallagher) as Le Corbusier cited, inevitably led to the demise of decorative and aesthetics in favour for more organised and geometrical buildings, in addition to this there was a new enthusiasm for building vertically. Venturi believed that the introduction of this technologically motivated notion advertently simplified architecture so much so it had seen a departure from the ‘experience of life.’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg17) Consequently becoming focused on what characterised as Realism. Venturi studied people in their everyday life and routines, purposely so as not to exclude designing for social problems and consequently to design for the truth. A somewhat stark contrast to the modernist notion of designing for simplification or t he ‘Less is More’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) idea, as stated by Miles Van De Rohe. This evidently left many social questions unanswered or as Paul Rudolf, a prominent modernist architect quoted ‘all problems can never be solved.’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) Furthermore the development of new materials and constructional technological advances allowed for modernist architects to design freely with focus on spatial forms and geometric proportions. Miles Van De Rohes Pavilion’s illustrate this as they lacked any sort of reference to the past as his desire and purpose was to exploit new technologies to the fullest and have no recognized relation to the past whatsoever. Venturi opposed this as he looked to past historical architecture for inspiration and saw relevance in previous movements and styles. This allowed him to design with meaning and by combing new methods of construction and technology allowed him to develop and erect innovative buildings that reflected historical traits whilst still fitting into a  modern society. A further modernist view was that architecture was about a blend on technology and art, and to inevitably reform some sort of style they believed had become lost in tradition. They admired the emerging new developments, especially in transportation and new materials becoming available. They tried to instil this new, sleek, streamlined look in their buildings. It was almost as if they wanted to draw a line under the past and render a new concept of design to follow with the new advances that were being made in other fields. Nonetheless Venturi held on to his belief that architecture hadn’t become so much as lost but instead had been forgotten. Stating that ‘conventional elements’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) could be applied using the advanced methods the modernists championed, and that some sort of balance could be achieved. It suggests a complete rejection of the past is not relevant in order to move forward in not only a social aspect but also to cater for what appeared to be, a demand for a new architectural style. Venturi was positive in regards to the new materials and construction methods now available and did not deny that they were not beneficial to society in his today and stating ‘conventional elements’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) constructed in ‘unconventional ways’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg43) supports this. As does his design for the Vanna Venturi House, (Ref 2) constructed in 1961 in which an array of modernist materials were used, such as steel. Yet he chose to mix both development in techniques and materials with historical features to create a design that was visually, functionally and constructed successfully in design. Venturi became interested in the Las Vegas Strip (Ref 4) leading him to write the book ‘learning from Las Vegas’ published in 1972. He came to the conclusion that the city had been built to accommodate for the technologically savvy society. The architectural advertisement method Vegas seemed to have  adopted had all been carefully angled to appeal to the people now driving down the strip. This was an original concept in which to appeal to an audience not necessarily on foot. The architecture almost becomes an advertisement in itself and the landscape inadvertently develops into its notorious messy, chaotic and fast paced form, which also reflected the  traits the city and people in it had undertook. The architecture became a direct contrast to the modernist tendencies as the strip ‘serves culture rather than dictates it.’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) this was perhaps as Vegas was competitive and needed to directly interact with its audience in order to entice them. Venturi was inspired to take aspects of how Las Vegas had so forcefully removed the constraints of which had seemed to be put upon architecture and apply it, however in a not so embellished manner. Venturi states how The Guild House (Ref 3) was built with these intentions as well as having a ‘vernacular’ (Perkowitz, 2002) idea in mind. He went on to exploit every available inch of building space obtainable, by building up six-stories high. An attribute in fact of the modernist conception, however Venturi came to this design conclusion to enable the inhabitants to interact more conveniently with the outside. This was said to be purposely done so as not to break up the prevailing aesthetics of the street, nonetheless still managed to introduce another dimension to it. A fragmented outline of the Southern faà §ade directly contrasts with the smooth surface of the North. This intentionally done so as the building was built for the elderly so rather than isolate, the distorted faà §ade in fact drew the outside in, to allow for maximum interaction in a visual nature. Venturi attempts to imply a Baroque Palazzo style upon the Guild House (Ref 3) by the introduction of white tiles on the lower and upper levels of the building. Which was believed to have ‘symbolic’ and ‘representational’ (S.V.Moos, 1987, pg25) components that merge as a whole which in avertedly was to reflect the architectural connotation of the structure. It was understood that the Guild House (Ref 3) was built on a system of layers. Layers of artistic meaning and organisation, each one symbolising the importance of the historical and architectural discourse. This is reinforced by Venturi testifying ‘knowledge instead of learning’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg12) supports the fact he draws upon what was effective in the past and relates it to his own compositions. He breaks up the historical foundations and is driven and instils a sense of the past throughout his designs. The modernist notion of designing for what the architect believed society wanted rather than needed impacted primarily upon the poorer societies. Hence forth Venturi was particularly careful when building The Guild House perhaps to show designing  with the context and user in mind can be achieved successfully without social problems having to be ignored or forgotten, again a tendency modern architecture seemed to adopt in fear of losing aesthetic value. Venturi sought to prove you could have both. In reflection it can be said that Venturi is extremely knowledgeable and has an in-depth understanding and appreciation for historical architecture in which he feel shouldn’t be forgotten but instead should be admired and inspire future movements. Despite modernism striping what Venturi believed was the ‘art’ from architecture he fought to overcome these tendencies are drew upon relevant historic features and characterisations and applied them liberally to his design, in accordance to their context. Nevertheless he understood that designing for the user was significant and not to exclude social problems. He undertook the modernist concept of advanced ways to construct and recognised and understood the developing society, yet he chose not to ignore historic references and applied them in a system of layers within his designs to accommodate for the advanced civilization whilst electing to apply asceticism for both a functional and visual experience.