Tuesday, March 5, 2019
The required number of hours
Sleep is a basic compassionate need. It functions to stick aroundore normal natural effect levels and normal balance among the parts of the aflutter system and it allows for repair processes to occur as in protein synthesis (Kozier, 2004). lack of pa mathematical function is said to induct an emotionally irrit subject, poorly concentrated private(a) that experiences decision making worry. The required number of hours of rest period per twenty-four hour period varies with age. A newborn is expected to relief for 16 to 18 hours a day, an sister 22 hours a day, a toddler 10 to 12 hours per day and preschool children need 11 to 12 hours of calmness per day (Kozier, 2004).As the individualist grows older, he is required to sleep less. School older children is required 8 to 12 hours of sleep, adolescents 8 to 10 hours, young adults 7 to 8 hours, middle aged adults 6 to 8 hours and elders only 6 hours (Kozier, 2004). The circadian rhythm, the most well-known(prenominal) rhythmic biologic clock that is responsible for our sleep-wake patterns, follows a dark-light pattern with the suprachiasmatic substance as its pace sustainr (Bullock, 2000).The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the anterior hypothalamus and is stimulate by the receptors in the retina of our eyes. Melatonin, which has regulatory effects on the SCN, is secreted by the pineal gland and its secretion is stimulated by the dark and is suppressed by light (Bullock, 2000). Melatonin promotes sleep in this way, and fewer hormones secreted, as in the elderly, get out be one of the mevery intellects for insomnia (Bullock, 2000). There argon s eeral(prenominal) factors that foot stick sleep pattern disturbance a perspective from a step-down in melatonin.Sleep pattern disturbances plenty be caused by external or internal factors and these disturbances coffin nail only be classified as a medical exam condition when they chronically interrupt sleep (Bullock, 2000) or when the unfitnes s to sleep well at night causes impaired mean solar day work (Atkinson, 2000). Sleep pattern disturbances keep been grouped into four categories by the linkup of Sleep Disorders Center, namely, disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, disorders of quiescence-waking schedule and dysfunctions associated with sleep, sleep stages or partial arousal (Atkinson, 2000).Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep complicate insomnias, which is the inability to sleep and maybe exhibited by difficulty falling asleep, thither argon recurrent modifys, and early morning awakening without cosmos able to go back to sleep (Atkinson, 2000). Reasons for the cause of insomnia is quiesce non known, as or so claim that this is a symptom of a ailment or just a perception of individuals who feel that they use up not gotten enough sleep because of some factors they claim to have experienced. Insomnia flush toilet be attributed to various factors th at could either be pathologic or psychological.Pathologic causes include disease process, pain, obstructive uropathy, hyperthyroidism, congenital essence failure, respiratory disease, arthritis, and hormonal unbalance (Atkinson, 2000). Psychologically, anxiety, obsessive worrying, chronic stress and clinical depression can bring close insomnia (Atkinson, 2000). As much as possible, interventions for insomnia remain to be nonp priceacologic, but if the individual is experiencing sleeplessness that is ruining his daytime activities, a doctor will set up selected sedative-hypnotic medications.Although effective, these medications should not be used as often and several(prenominal) considerations should be noted. These medications produce a central nervous system depression and produces an unnatural sleep, it may resolve insomnia for tonight, but may disturb sleep the following night and cause daytime drowsiness (Kozier, 2004). Some medications are antianxiety medications which dec rease the arousal ability of the individual taking it these are in like manner contraindicated to be taken by pregnant women because of the congenital anomalies that they may cause (Kozier, 2004).These medications also vary in their onset and duration of action and endless use can lead to tolerance or to drug settlement (Kozier, 2004). Sudden cessation of these medications can result in withdrawal symptoms and level death, thus before withdrawal of medications, the dose should be gradually dwindling to about 25% to 30% weekly. Examples of these medications are Chloral hydrate (Noctec), Ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), flurazepam (Dalmane), Glutethimide (Doriden), Lorazepam (Ativan), Melatonin, Temazepam (Restoril), Triazolam (Halcion), Zaleplon (Sonata), and Zolpidem (Ambien) (Kozier, 2004).Alternative interposition for insomnia have been preferred over the pharmacologic therapy because alternative treatment is natural, hence less side effects are experienced and the individual wi ll be able to have control over his sleep-wake cycle. Nonorthodox, unconventional, alternative, complementary, are a number of name used to denote non-medical treatment that has been used since early clock for a variety of diseases. Complementary and alternative medicine is defined as being identified through a social process as those practices that do not form part of the dominant system for managing health and disease (Kozier, 2004, p.224). Before considering any therapy, be it alternative or pharmacologic, the individual is discuss to consider techniques on promoting rest and sleep. A somebody who is suffering from insomnia should defecate a regular sleep-wake pattern, this means that he should try to go to sleep at the same time everyday and wake up at the same time also. This is to prevent disruptions in the biologic clock (Kozier, 2004). He should also try to eliminate lengthy naps in between sleeps, and if ever necessary should limit this to only thirty minutes per day at the same time everyday (Kozier, 2004).He should get ample exercise or physical activities during the day to lower stress but this should not be make two hours before bedtime. The individual should also avoid traffic with personal problems or office work before going to sleep and ins afternoon tead should establish a routine before sleep much(prenominal) as reading a book, listening to music or drink a glass of warm milk (Kozier, 2004). Finally, to establish a sleep pattern the person is asked to only use the bed for sleeping, so that he would associate it with sleep, and that if still not drowsy, pursue some let looseing activity (Kozier, 2004).The environment also plays a role in helping the individual fall asleep. There should be appropriate lighting, temperature and ventilation as per the persons desire, noise should be kept to a minimum and if indifferent noise is present, it should be blocked with soft music (Kozier, 2004). With regards to food utilization and diet, the individual should not take a heavy meal 3 hours before bedtime and to decrease fluid intake 2 to 4 hours anterior to going to sleep but if it cannot be helped, void before sleeping (Kozier, 2004).Several drugs can disrupt sleep by delaying its onset, decreasing sleep time, and cause nightmares and should be avoided before sleeping, examples are alcohol, amphetamines, antidepressants, beta-blockers, bronchodilators, caffeine, decongestants, and steroid (Kozier, 2004). Caffeine containing foods and beverages include coffee, soda, tea and chocolate and should not be taken 4 hours before bedtime. Promoting pouffe and relaxation may be instrumental.The individual should wear loose-fitting nightwear, have taken a bath and does not feel sweaty and hot, show sealed the bed linen is soft, smooth, clean and dry, and a back massage may be done, which is a type of sense of touch therapy (Kozier, 2004). There are several healing modalities that are being implemented to help alleviate in somnia, and this includes touch therapy, assessment-body therapy, and aroma therapy. Touch therapies, which include massage, foot reflexology, acu force, and reiki, may stimulate the outturn of healing-promoting chemicals by the immune or limbic system (Kozier, 2004).Massage assists in relaxation and blood circulation improvement (Kozier, 2004). Physically, it promotes muscle relaxation by helping in release of lactic acid that is formed during strenuous activities and exercise, it improves blood and lymph flow, stretches joints, and helps in body toxin release and immune system stimulation (Kozier, 2004). It also has amiable and emotional benefits like anxiety relief and it provides a sense of relaxation and well-being (Kozier, 2004).There are three kinds of massage strokes, namely effleurage (stroking), friction pressure and petrissage which is kneading or large quick pinches of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and muscles (Kozier, 2004). Mind-body therapies utilize the individua ls focus on realigning or creating balance in mental impact to bring about healing (Kozier, 2004). Progressive relaxation is most helpful in insomnia because it reduces increased level of stress and chronic pain by enabling the individual to wield control over the bodys responses to anxiety and tension (Kozier, 2004).There are three requisites though, to be able to make use of this technique. There should be correct posture, the persons thinker should be at rest and the environment should be noise bountiful as possible and the technique is to make the individual tense and relax his muscles alternately and indeed focus attention on the differentiating feelings of each action (Kozier, 2004). This can result to reduced oxygen consumption by decreased metabolism, heart and respiratory rate, and decreased blood pressure (Kozier, 2004).Aromatherapy, which is defined clinically as the controlled use of essential oils for specific measurable outcomes by Kozier, can be used by massaging into the body, added to water that is used when bathing, inhaled or utilise as hot or cold compresses. The oils used in this therapy are distilled from a variety of substances such as flowers, roots, wood resins, leaves, lemon or orange rinds, barks, etc. When inhaled, the oils aroma is detected by olfactory receptor cells in our nares.The stimuli received will travel a coherent the olfactory nerve or the cranial nerve I, the stimuli will then be received by the olfactory bulb and will be sent to the brain. The essential oil aroma is thought to play a role in emotions, memory and a variety of body functions including the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and immune response (Kozier, 2004). There are ccc essential oils being used and some of these are lavender for irritation relief, stress and insomnia, peppermint for nausea relief, aid in respiration an antipyretic, and sandalwood for bats skin, depression, and stress (Kozier, 2004).There are also some herbal preparations tha t can be used for insomnia. Hops and valerian are used to induce sleep by nervous system relaxation, as recommended by the website Holistic online. There are ways by which we can combine both the conventional treatment and the alternative therapies to reduce insomnia. One way is to do the techniques on promoting rest and sleep, while on low-dosed medication. In a way, this might still be useful in eventually lowering and then eliminating drug use while still maintaining a normal sleep-wake pattern.Although plausible, it is still best discuss to not take pharmacologic therapy when necessary. There is to some extent a risk on using sedative-hypnotic drugs, as mentioned earlier. This can cause drug dependency, withdrawal symptoms if stopped abruptly without tapering the dose gradually, and can disrupt the sleep-wake pattern by causing excessive sleep and daytime drowsiness. It should also be noted that these drugs can be expensive and if needed on a daily basis may become a burden to healthcare cost budgets.The benefit of course is that you will be able to sleep, after a few minutes once the drug is taken. As to the nonpharmacologic treatment suggestions, there are no risks, as long as the person who would want to try out these therapies has an open mind and is willing to subject himself to these procedures. Health wise, the therapies do not present any danger to the individual being subjected to the procedures unless pregnant, has allergies to the essential oils or herbs, has fractures, skin conditions or disease processes.If the person has insomnia as a symptom to an underlying disease, he should immediately heed the physicians advice. I do not see alternative treatment as a threat to the medical community, nor a competition. These two have very different procedures and are found on different dogmas that they should not be compared to each other. Although it cannot be helped, state should always be open-minded about these things, because they are at times u seful, and have been subjected to numerous tests to be proven safe and effective.Of course, if one is in doubt of the nature or cause of their insomnia, one should head to the near clinic or to the family physician before taking these alternative treatments into consideration. Once there is no underlying pathology, then before taking sleeping pills to make the dilemma go away, nonpharmacologic therapy should and is highly recommended to be done. There is no harm to it, and it might just help. It costs less and can be done right at home without spending gas to go some place else. But if all else fails, then it is suggested to take the sleeping pills as prescribed by the physician.References Atkinson, R. L. , Atkinson R. C. , Smith E. E. , Bem, D. J. , & Nolen-Koeksema, S. (2000). Hilgards Introduction to Psychology. regular army Thomson. Bullock, B. and Henze, R. (2000). centralise on Pathophysiology. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Holistic Online. (1998-2007). Herb a nd Herbal Therapies. Retrieved January 25, 2008, from http//holisticonline. com/Remedies/Sleep/sleep_insomnia_herbs. htm Kozier, B. Erb, G. , Berman, A. , & Snyder, S. (2004). Fundamentals of Nursing. USA Pearson Education. .