Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Juvenile Justice: Incarceration vs. Intervention Essay

AbstractThe national trend towards getting sorry on new-fashioned crime by altering the puerile arbitrator remains to to a greater extent closely mirror the adult governance was examined in order to determine whether restrain confinement of new offenders is as potent as dowernership- base rehabilitative and word courses for these young person. Politicians and populace cognitions have allowed the jejune jurist system to evolve from unrivalled of reform based thinking to one of punishment based thinking, placing much early daysfulness offenders in furbish up facilities than ever so before. The social repercussions of true(p) confinement of new-fashioneds, without the use of proper rehabilitative tools, including information and life-building skills, be evident as younker argon creation exercise aside rather than being encouraged to produce productive members of their communities. non a day goes by where our national media doesnt report on stories inv olving heinous and criminal acts perpet step by upstarts in the united States. upstart delinquency is a fact of life ranging from minor status offenses to unthinkable acts of violence. When dealing with young offenders, there be always difficult decisions to sack concerning appropriate punishments that take both public safety and the needs of the recent into account. In response to a recognizable increase in callowness crime, getting tough on juvenile delinquency and holding young offenders more accountable has been the national trend in the past 2 decades(Brinks, 2004). Many argue that removing juveniles from the environment in which their crimes were committed is the just about undefeated deterrent of future negative look. But what does unspoiled confinement go away these troubled juveniles aside from isolation from the negative influences they may be subjected to on the outside? Should young offenders be incarcerated for their crimes as they would be as adults, or is it assertable to rehabilitate a juvenile delinquent without the use of age lag or incarceration? Of course, juvenile offenders essential be held accountable for their offenses it is an all important(p) element in the natural process of learning and maturation.However, the immatureness that is seen in children and adolescents is an indicator that these behaviors volition not be well deterred by pugnacious punitive action, but rather be better served by rehabilitative attempts. The fact that young offenders tend to outgrow their nonconformity is heretofore more of a reason to believe that a castigatory go about to these juveniles will not be victorful in reaching deterrent or rehabilitative goals (Young & Gainsborough, 2000). Because of these matters, community programs and intense intervention are more stiff than secure confinement when it comes to juvenile delinquency rehabilitation. In order to explore the force of treatment and intervention versus incarceration of juveniles, it is helpful to look at the pilot burner cloakedions of the juvenile nicety system and how the system has since evolved. The question of rehabilitation versus incarceration of juvenile delinquents came to a head in the of late 1800s, resulting in the intellectual institution of the first juvenile act system in the United States. antecedent to this time, institutionalized children were held along with adults, and no efforts were being made to teach them the requirement skills they required to make positive contributions to society. After centuries of treating very young children as property, and those over the age of five or six as hardly little adults when it came to criminal misconduct, it was finally recognized, and widely accepted, that the developmental differences between juveniles and adults provided an increase opportunity for the victorious rehabilitation of juveniles outside of secure confinement. The early old age of the juvenile justice system f oc utilise on recovering the blend ins of the juvenile offenders before they were completely immersed in a life of criminal activity. The states took on the role of parents or parens patriae (state as guardian) and undertook theparenting responsibility until the juveniles showed improved behaviors, or became adults. new-fashioneds were no longer tried as adult offenders, and reform houses, rather than prisons, were used to emphasize behavior reform rather than punishment (Brinks, 2004). The juvenile justice systems focus on reform continued throughout much of the 20th century.Changes began emerging in the juvenile court system in the middle 1900s. During this time, the main objective of juvenile justice remained focus on reformation rather than criminal punishment, however, principles which were not previously in place, were being established by the Supreme Court, requiring juvenile courts to guarantee particular proposition inbuilt protections to young offenders. These protect ions included the right to be re extraditeed by an attorney, the right against self-incrimination and the right to hear the testimony against them (Ramsey & Abrams, 2004, p. 42). Although these rights are in nervous strain with constitutional rights afforded adults, many an(prenominal) within the juvenile justice system were interested that the courts reformative techniques would be lessened if the same constitutional rights were applied to children as to adults. rightness Potter Stewart expressed concern that the courts decision would convert a juvenile proceeding into a criminal prosecution (History of the Statess, 2008). While constitutional rights must now be afforded to everyone, this was the first of many changes which began to alter the historical intent of the juvenile justice system. Until 1980, other changes in the juvenile justice system seemed to consistently refer back to the main objective of its creation. The teenaged viciousness Prevention and Control sour of 1 968 encouraged states to establish programs geared towards the cake and rehabilitation of juvenile delinquency at the community level. These programs, once approved, were qualified to consume federal funding. The adolescent Justice and willful neglect Prevention Act of 1974 built upon the 1968 act and increased nationwide rehabilitative efforts for juvenile offenders. If states wished to receive funding under this act, they were required to remove all juveniles within their jurisdictions from secure confinement facilities and separate them from convicted adults, building on the belief of writer Morrison blue-belly who commented on jailing young offenders with adults, young and impressionable offenders were being carried off to Rutland with more hardened men, there to receive an education in lawlessness from their undergo associates(Swift, 1911).Despite these steps towards delinquency prevention, or perhaps because of them, public perception towards an increase in juvenile cri me in the 1980s caused radically different changes to begin to take place within the juvenile justice system. In the past two decades, the U.S. has gravitated towards a get tough approach with juvenile delinquents. In the mid 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. saw a steep rise in violent juvenile crime, a sure increase in the juvenile population, and many high profile occurrences of youthfulness crime such(prenominal) as public school shootings in Paducah, KY and aquilegia mettlesome School in Littleton, CO. In 1996, Janet Reno, U.S. Attorney General stated, no corner of America is safe from increasing levels of criminal violence, including violence committed by and against juveniles (Zavlek, 2005). Americans feared that they were under assault by a generation of adolescent time-bombs and that only the abandonment of soft educational and rehabilitative approaches, in favor of strict and unrelenting discipline a zero tolerance approach could effectively address the issues (Browne, 2003, p. 10). In reaction to these public fears, legislatures resolved to crack-down on juvenile crime, even though by the mid 1990s, juvenile arrest rates for violent offenses were as low as they had been 20 years earlier. State and local laws imposing harsher punishments on juvenile offenders were enacted, and in turn, more youth were brought into the court system for longer amounts of time (McCord, Widom & Crowell, 2001). This led to an extremely humongous population of young offenders being held, to this day, in secure confinement facilities. Secure juvenile detention facilities have become the most accepted form of punishment for youthful offenders. Although there was a 66% increase in the juvenile arrest rate during the late 1980s and early 1990s, from 139 arrests per 100,000 youth in 1986 to 231 arrests per 100,000 in 1993, there was an even larger, 74% increase in the second of youth confined in secure facilities during that same period.Furthermore, in 2001, when juvenile crime rates were comparable with(predicate) to the rates in 1980, the number of youth confined in secure juvenile or adult detention centers was more than double the number in 1980 51,000 on any given day in 1980, compared to 104,000 on an average day in 2001. Additionally, despite the dramatic decline in juvenile arrest rates since 1994, more than 44%, there has not been a parallel decline in youth confinement, which has stayed relatively unvariedsince 1995 (Sickmund, 2002). This increased reliance on secure detention accommodations brings with it several concerns regarding the present juvenile justice model of confinement. After looking at the seeming(a) trends in the United States in regards to juvenile crime rates and a propensity towards harsher punishments despite a seeming decrease in juvenile delinquency, there are concerns which arise out of the adult adjudication and incarceration of our youth. genus Melissa Sickmund claims that one of the largest concerns about secur e detention and confinement of juveniles is overcrowding of facilities. She estimates that 39% of juvenile detention facilities are housing more residents than they are meant to accommodate, creating dangerous situations for management, and hindering opportunities for treatment and rehabilitation (Sickmund, 2002). Overcrowding of facilities presents many challenges for administrators, likely rehabilitators, and the confined youth. Opportunities for educational development, such as obtaining a GED, for youth detained for extended periods of time, are extremely limited. Furthermore, mental health needs cannot be appropriately addressed. It is estimated that between 50 70% of juveniles who are incarcerated have diagnosable mental health issues and up to a quarter of those may be suicidal, but access to proper treatment is difficult in crowded facilities (Wasserman, Ko & McReynolds, 2004). In addition to the physical, educational and mental health needs of confined youth not being su ccessfully met, unproven effectiveness of detention and confinement is another major(ip) concern.Recidivism rates are extremely high for youth confined in punitory units, such as training schools, where up to 70% of released youth are rearrested within one or two years later on their release (Wiebush et al., 2005). Not only are there substantial concerns for the eudaemonia of juveniles in secure facilities, the cost of operating and continuing to construct these facilities is extraordinary. In the year 2000 alone, at least $10-$15 billion was expended in the United States for juvenile justice, most of which went towards paying confinement expenses (Mendel, 2000). Rather than focus on treatment and teaching skills which will help these juveniles become productive members of society, these facilities manufacture a considerable separation from family and community, succeeding only in separate these youth and making community re-entry difficult (Wiebush et al., 2005). Because of the se, and other, issues,positive substitute(a)s to incarceration for young offenders must be made obtainable and used to the fullest extent possible. As is illustrated by the many concerns surrounding the secure confinement of juvenile offenders, its ineffectualness is apparent, and there are much more advantageous and beneficial alternatives available to these youth. According to Rolf Loeber and David Farrington, secure confinement should be reserved only for those juveniles who are a likely threat to themselves or public safety, and even then, small, community based facilities are preferable. They contend that The most effective strategy for treating and rehabilitating juvenile offenders and preventing recidivism is a comprehensive, community-based model that integrates prevention programming a continuum of pretrial and sentencing transcription options, services and sanctions and after fearfulness programs (Loeber & Farrington, 1998, p 333).Community-based curricula are affordabl e alternatives available to a large number of juvenile offenders, which are intended to decrease crowding, cut be of maintaining juvenile detention centers, protect offenders from the negative attention of institutionalization, and help realise positive relationships between the youth and their families and communities while discouraging association with youth who have similar, or more spartan criminal histories. One community-based program which has proven to be very effective as an alternative to secure confinement for juveniles is photographic plate detention. Home detention requires the offender to remain at home either at all quantify, at all times when not in school or working, or at night. During home detention, supervisors, normally paraprofessional outreach workers, have much more frequent contact with the youth than tralatitious probation officers, but the juveniles are allowed to remain with family in their communities (Ball, Huff & Lilly, 1998, p. 158). High levels of success are reported with home detention programs. Studies conducted in California, Ohio and aluminum have reported an 89-97% success rate with their home detention programs, success being measured by recidivism rates, which were generally under 8%, compared to up to 70% for those youth being held in secure detention (Austin, Johnson & Weitzer, 2005).In addition to keeping children within their communities, community-based treatment and therapy has been pegged as one of the most effective treatments for juvenile delinquency. A goal of community-based treatment is to increase maternalauthority and supervision as well as focus on any school, family or interpersonal needs or potential problems (Cullen & Gendreau, 2000). in that respect are many successful intensive supervision programs (ISPs) of this type across the country. One such program is the San Francisco based Detention Diversion protagonism Program (DDAP). teens are referred to DDAP by parents, courts, probation office rs or other community agencies. Upon referral to the program, DDAP identifies potential problems, and presents a rehabilitative plan to the court. Offenders live at home, and they and their families are provided with inevitable services by DDAP case workers. A 2007 study of DDAP found that the recidivism rate of juveniles in this program was less than half that of juveniles who were held in detention facilities for at least 3 days (24 percent versus 60 percent) (Sheldon, 2009). Many reasons were cited for DDAPs success, including smaller caseloads, freedom of the caseworkers from administrative limitations of the juvenile justice system, and the programs emphasis on treatment and educational services along with diminutive goals to follow the youths progress (Sheldon, 2009). Similar programs are too in place for those youth who are unable to return to their homes or families for any reason. Treatment foster give care programs are suitable alternative locations in the community fo r those children who may not be able to live at home.Treatment foster care programs are unlike traditional group homes or foster homes in that the foster care families are actively recruited and specially trained to care for only one youth at a time in their home. The training provided to the foster parents stresses behavior management methods in order to provide the youth in their care with structure and a corrective living environment. Even after training, workaday support is provided by case managers through telephone calls and visits. Biological families are also provided family therapy services. Random evaluations of these programs have shown that recidivism rates are set out among these participants than in those in traditional group homes and secure facilities (Greenwood, 2008). Treatment foster care programs are another example of successful alternatives to juvenile detention. As has been shown in the above examples, the research that exists in regards to juvenile justice suggests that community-based alternatives to detention and secure confinement of juveniles are at least, and most times more, effective in reducing recidivism rates among youngoffenders, while being significantly lower in cost to operate. Despite noticeable decreases in juvenile crime, many jurisdictions are still faced with the problems of overcrowding in their juvenile detention facilities. In addition to the many negative consequences surrounding overcrowding, such as the zeals inability to maintain safety and security, most youth will simply not benefit from confinement without the use of evidence based programs (Greenwood, 2008). Effectively dealing with juvenile delinquency involves a myriad of issues ranging from the immaturity of young offenders to the changing trends of juvenile crime. When looking at the many possible outcomes of both incarceration and alternate forms of punishment, we should be able to draw a better conclusion about what types of punishments or treatmen ts are most effective for this group of offenders. As a community, we must focus on opportunities to instruct and grow the youth of today into productive contributors of tomorrows society. To discover this, youthful offenders must be embraced, not forgotten.ReferencesAustin, J., Johnson, K. D., & Weitzer, R. U.S. plane section of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2005). Alternatives to the secure detention and confinement of juvenile offenders. Retrieved from website https//www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/208804.pdf Ball, R., Huff, C., and Lilly, J. 1988. firm Arrest and Correctional Policy Doing time at home. Beverly Hills, CA perspicacious Publications.Brinks, D. O. (2004, Jan). Immaturity, normative competence, and juvenile transfer How (not) to punish minors for major crimes. Retrieved from http//philosophy efficiency.ucsd.edu/faculty/dbrink/pdf articles/Immaturity, Normative Competence, and Juvenile Transfer.pdf Browne, J.A. 2003. DERAILED The schoolhouse to jailhouse track. Washington, DCAdvancement Project.Cullen, F., and Gendreau, P. 2000. Assessing correctional rehabilitation Policy, practice, and prospects in Criminal Justice, vol. 3, edited by J. Horney. Washington, DC U.S. incision of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, theme Institute of Justice, pp. 109160. Greenwood, P. W.(2008). Prevention and intervention programs for juvenile offenders. Journal Juvenile Justice, 18(2), Retrieved from http//www.futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=31&articleid=47ionid=166 History of Americas juvenile justice system. (2008). Retrieved from http//www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/juvenile-law/history Lipsey, M., and Wilson, D. 1998. Effective intervention for serious juvenile offenders. In Serious and violent juvenile offenders, edited by R. Loeber and D. Farrington. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage. Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Serious and violent juvenile offen ders Risk factors and successful interventions. (pp. 313-345). Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications. McCord, J., Widom, C.S., and Crowell, N.A., eds. 2001. Juvenile crime, juvenile justice. Washington, DC National Academy Press.Mendel, R.A. 2000. Less hype, more help Reducing juvenile crime, what whole shebangand what doesnt. 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Retrieved from http//www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/95nov/prisons/humanizi.htm Wasserman, G., Ko, S., McReynolds, L. 2004. Assessing the mental health status of youth in juvenile justice settings. Bulletin. Washington, DC U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of JuvenileJustice and Delinquency Prevention. Wiebush, R., Wagner, D., McNulty, B., Wang, Y., and Le, T. 2005. Implementation and outcome evaluation of the intensive aftercare program. Report. Washington, DC U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Young, M. C., & Gainsborough, J. (2000, Jan).Prosecuting juveniles in adult c ourt An assessment of trends and consequences. Retrieved fromhttp//www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/sp/juvenile.pdfZavlek, S. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2005, Aug). Planning community-based facilities for violent juvenile offenders as part of a system of graduated sanctions. Retrieved from website https//www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp

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